Modern psychology is a fairly extensive system knowledge, it incorporates a system of disciplines associated with different areas of practice. According to the free online dictionary, psychology is “the science that deals with mental processes and behavior”. The main principle of classification of psychology’s branches is the principle of the psyche’s development of the human activity, according to which there are a lot of different areas of psychology depending on human activities.
General psychology occupies a special place among other branches of psychology. It explores the most common patterns of mental activity of the adult normal person. The content of general psychology is the main principles of science, its methods, a system of concepts, generalization and abstraction of research results obtained in different areas of psychology.
Developmental psychology studies the mental patterns of human development, the formation of various mental processes and mental personality traits. In developmental psychology there are the following sections: child psychology, psychology of adolescence, adult psychology, psychology of aging. The main task of developmental psychology is the disclosure of age psychology, as well as establishing patterns of transition from one age period to another, and finding the most favorable periods of the formation of various mental personality traits.
Educational psychology explores the psychological foundations of education and training, and it is directly related to developmental psychology, since psychological aspects of training and education can not be disclosed without regard to age and individual characteristics of children. The task of educational psychology is to determine the content of training and education, identifying requirements for textbooks, search and study of rational methods of training and education, providing leadership in mental activities and behavior of students, promoting their mental development. In addition, educational psychology studies the relationship between teacher and student, requirements related to the individual teacher, as well as it reveals the content and structure of educational abilities.
Social psychology studies the phenomena that occur in the interaction between people in different organized or unorganized social groups, the characteristics of these groups, the position of the individual in them, as well as the processes associated with the group’s functioning.
Psychology of labor studies psychological aspects of human labor activity, the psychological aspects of scientific management, professionally important qualities of the person in respect of any profession, career counseling and physical fitness problems, and has several sections which are also the separate branches of psychological science: engineering psychology, aviation psychology, space psychology.
Psychology of art examines the psychological components of art activities directed to creating works of art, revealing patterns of human perception of these works, as well as the characteristics of the flow of feelings caused by artwork.
Legal psychology examines the problems associated with the psychological aspects of the investigation, analysis of evidence, the requirements for examination and psychological characteristics of the offender, motives of crime, prisoner’s psychology and principles of his rehabilitation. Medical psychology deals with psychotherapy, mental hygiene, communication problems between doctor and patient.
Pathopsychology explores the various forms of violations of people’s normal mental activities, as well as different disrupting of normal mental development. Comparative psychology studies psychics of animals, allowing to uncover the prehistory of human consciousness. The existence of a large number of different areas of psychology is a testament to the wide range of its practice using.
The problems studied by psychology, cover a wide range of problems ranging from researching of the experiences and perceptions, to researching of massive psychic phenomena. This is natural, since solving problems that are somehow related to human, requires study of its psyche.