Review of Literature
Older adults are the fastest growing population segment not only in the USA but also in other countries around the globe. Promotion of health literacy among the current category of people is considered to be a public health imperative. It is essential to communicate this issue with older adults to make it easy to understand from the ethical and professional viewpoints. Healthy aging and active health promotion in older people are becoming constantly increasing issues of national and international scope. Health is the main and most essential predictor of life satisfaction. It is vital to ensure the continued contributions of older adults to society. In general, health is the key determinant of competitiveness and growth in the sphere of economics. It is evident that a healthy population leads to the reduction of health care spending and decreases the health care system burden. Health promotion is of great importance and refers to both individual and societal levels. Thus, health promotion takes an essential position in the present environment of the health care industry. Aging increases the potential strain of the population on health care systems due to the greater use of health care services. The question of health promotion in older adults has been studied by many researchers who use different definitions and tools to measure the concepts.
Chernoff (2001) discovers the issues of health promotion and nutrition among older adults and states that such a concept is a legitimate health care part. The process of population aging increases the potential strain on the health care systems. It is related to the fact that during the last years of life people tend to make the greatest use of health care services. The author measures the concept through the assessment of screening protocols, taking into account many correctable factors (p. 47). Therefore, the article suggests that the screening of diabetes, hypertension, hearing, cholesterol, and cancer should be integrated into programs related to health promotion. Activities that aim at promoting health increase the health level in older adults. Proper exercise patterns and changes in diets substantially influence the prevention of nutrition-related conditions and lead to increased age of life. Behavior changes are also essential as they contribute to improved health. Numerous adult education theories and models enhance behavior changes and lead to healthful habits. The author states that diet is an essential factor that influences disease development (p. 48). Additionally, it is essential to perform the screening of nutritional status as health maintenance requires an ability to define the factors that make a contribution to a healthful state (p. 50). Health promotion programs should address the needs of older adults (p. 52) as they are unique individuals with exceptional requirements and can change their lifestyle to experience health promotion.
Painter (2006) analyses health and wellness promotion for older adults making an emphasis on chiropractors, who assist them in maintaining and improving their health. He states that middle-aged and older adults should pursue fitness as it is key to their health care promotion. The author claims that physical and mental illness can slow and even prevent many chronic illnesses. The research indicates a strong relationship between vital mind and physiological fitness. Engagement in health control strategies has led to the improvement of a psychological mechanism that protects older adults and prevents them from experiencing unfavorable emotional reactions. Moreover, it results in a decrease in biological functioning. The author emphasizes the need in a lifelong process of optimizing the opportunities related to the improvement and preservation of health. The concept of health care promotion is measured through the assessment of common pathological conditions that tend to accompany aging. Such conditions include diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, and hypertension. Similarly to Chernoff (2001), the author states that lifestyle changes have a positive influence on the quality of older adults’ lives. The current category of people seeks health promotion and chiropractors can help them deal with health-related problems. The article suggests that regular physical activity during the entire life is essential as they can prevent premature death, maintain a healthy body, and enhance psychological well-being.
The main idea presented by Lis et al. (2008) is that older adults are not a homogeneous group. The authors provide evidence-based guidelines related to health promotion for older adults, making emphasis on the difference in living conditions, material, needs, and social resources. The concept of health promotion becomes more evident in terms of disadvantaged and at-risk groups (p. 4). It is assessed through health determinants and epidemiology as they provide information and good understandings of the most vulnerable groups that tend to experience social and health inequalities. Lis et al. speak about the need to assess the adequate addressing of ongoing issues (p. 7). Proper strategies and methods help to provide an understanding of the health promotion goals that can cover numerous intended health outcomes. However, it is essential to choose the strategies that clearly reflect such outcomes (p. 22). Interdisciplinary approach presupposes health promotion in older adults from different points of view and using different methods. The authors claim that it is vital to integrate various methodologies and concepts to share a common goal. Therefore, interdisciplinarity can lead to new solutions that aim at promoting the health of older adults (p. 28). An effective health promotion program is always multi-faceted, interrelated, complex, and multidimensional.
Some scientists believe that inadequate health literacy negatively influences older adults (Speros, 2009). There are numerous complexities associated with sensory and cognitive changes, as well as chronic disease management. All of them are related to the challenges of teaching a group of vulnerable people. Education is essential as it results in comprehension and improved changes in terms of health behavior. Therefore, the author mentions different teaching strategies that help to accommodate the physical, cognitive, and psychological changes associated with aging. They include purposeful and effective communications, as well as approaches that focus on older people and demonstrate respect. It is essential to cause age-related changes and address the issues that may arise in the process of teaching older adults. Therefore, the author assesses the health promotion concept through literacy. There is a belief that cognitive aging impacts health literacy. The latter is usually defined as the social and cognitive skills determining the people’s abilities to properly understand, access, and use information related to health promotion. According to the study, there are numerous psychological and physical challenges to health literacy, such as the ability of older people to process information, adopt, and demonstrate learning.
Prohaska, Trites, & Scott (1993) offered a policy development structure for health promotion and illness prevention. Heath promotion requires the analysis and examination of personal experiences and expert suggestions. The authors made an attempt to identify the concept of health promotion taking into account a statewide survey of actual services related to disease prevention and health promotion, public hearing testimony, and a review of state and national documents on illness prevention for older people. There are arguments concerning the attention to disease prevention in older adults (p. 64). The study aimed at offering a suggestion, which takes into account recommendations from the above-mentioned sources of information. Moreover, the authors wanted to apply their recommendations to specific resources and needs. However, before recommending an activity or service, it is essential to check whether it meets certain criteria. For example, recommendations should suggest that it is possible to change the risk level in older adults. Such a change can have a positive influence on their health. In addition, it is important to demonstrate the influence of health risk behaviors on health and well-being (p. 76). Moreover, there is a need to provide evidence that can cause changes in the risk level of the given group of people, as well as its risk factor.
The need and effectiveness of reviewing the health policy history for older adults, using the information from health conferences and national policies, is suggested by Costa Santos et al. (2008). The study uses the health promotion model presented by Nola Pender to interconnect different themes that may lead to the empowerments as a strategy of health promotion for older people. The authors used bibliographic material to assess the concept. It also served as a data source that helped to achieve health promotion objectives. They focused on the need for nurses to be alert while addressing health promotion issues. It is essential to maintain favorable health conditions to maximize the active life and life expectancy in older adults. In addition, people should think about the mental, physical, and social autonomy and independence of the group. Such factors are closely related to well-being and health promotion. However, a better understanding of the international public policy perspective can be gained through the contextualization of international health conferences. Empowerment is treated as an effective strategy for health promotion. It leads to an increase in both collective and individual powers in interpersonal relations and institutions. Empowerment may help people become more independent.
Protection and promotion of health require interdisciplinary approaches. Review of the literature indicates that poor health of older adults is related to the level of poverty, social factors that influence health within countries, and health inequalities that derive from the unequal distribution of income, power, services, and goods. Studies represent the idea that the conditions of daily life and structural determinant constitute the social health determinants. The concept of health promotion is measured through different assessment tools, including screening protocols, common pathological conditions, etc.
It has been found that there exist at least three areas that help sociological practitioners to contribute to the process of health care policy development. Translation and analysis of the health-related concern can help them receive a deep insight into the community needs in terms of health care (Lis et al., 2008). Identification of health promotion for older adults is treated as an ongoing process. Moreover, sociological concepts can assist in the development of public health care policy. The practitioners could prove its invaluable contribution through the insights into the consequences of the recommendations concerning health policy. Moreover, sociological practitioners are responsible for the education of all people involved in the health promotion of older adults (Prohaska, Trites, & Scott, 1993, p. 79). Many scientists agree that it is essential to inform older people through health education programs and to stress the importance of the activities that promote health and prevent diseases.
Costa Santos et al. (2008) claim that it is easy to achieve health promotion in older adults through the implementation of certain gerotogeriatric nursing actions. They include prioritization of epidemiological and demographics issues, receiving the specific knowledge of Gerontology, and differentiating pathological and physiologic alterations in the aging process. The authors also mention awareness of the national legislation and the public policies that emphasize the needs of the elderly population and aim at disseminating them among their families and the community (Chernoff, 2001). Such activities result in proper maintenance of the independence and autonomy of older people, improved care for the given group of people and contribution to the changes in individual and collective behaviors related to the people’s health (Costa Santos et al., 2008). It can be successfully done with the help of health promotion actions and health education that focuses on older adults.
Analysis of relevant literature has shown that health and well-being of elderly individuals is not only the result of medical interventions and health care. Aging is a natural process that requires increased attention. It has been found that it is a consequence of everyday efforts in the sphere of disease prevention and health promotion (Painter, 2006). Scientists suggest the idea that prevention in older adults can have both effective and efficacious outcomes in terms of prevention and delay of the chronic disease onset. Additionally, it makes a significant contribution to the reduction of disability directly associated with chronic illnesses. In terms of a public health perspective, preventive activities are considered to be an essential tool (Speros, 2009). The process of aging in many countries is associated with the onset and progress of numerous disabilities and illnesses. Therefore, their prevention is essential in the treatment of chronic conditions and diseases. It has been found that the health setting requires input from families, individuals, health care services, and organizations (Prohaska, Trites, & Karen, 1993, p. 79).
Some scientists believe that chiropractors play an essential role in health promotion in older adults. Such people practice wellness and health promotion, offering their assistance. They aim at maintaining and improving both physical and mental fitness that is vital for health promotion. Painter (2006) states that older adults often express their desires to become involved in health promotion through counseling and education. Consequently, mediation that promotes healthy aging continues gaining significance. It is related to the fact that it leads to disability delay and prevention of function loss. It is possible to achieve effective results in health promotion through the program of sustainable physical and mental fitness.
The concept of health promotion has been treated in similar ways by different scientists. All of them speak about the importance of physical and mental well-being. Heal promotion literacy is also essential as it makes a substantial contribution to the issue with the older adults. It is necessary to admit the importance of health promotion programs. Lis et al. (2008) emphasize the effectiveness of strategies and methods that aim at achieving health promotion goals and result in the overall wellness. The scientists focus on the interdisciplinarity as it can assist in providing new and effective solutions to the issues associated with health promotion of older people. Chernoff (2001) makes an emphasis on the changes in behavior as they positively influence the health and well-being of older people (p. 47). Additionally, effective implementation of education theories and models enhances behavior changes and results in improved habits in terms of health.
It has become evident that since recent years, increased attention has been paid to the development and implementation of numerous prevention programs that aim at promoting the health of older adults (Speros, 2009). The primary objectives of health promotion in older adults are to increase the quality and years of life, to maintain functionality, improve the quality of life, eliminate health disparities, and extend life expectancy. Researchers state that the main components of health promotion include nutrition, exercise, high-risk behaviors, psychological and physical well-being, and others.
The concept of health promotion is a combination of mental and spiritual health that influences the overall well-being. It presupposes disease prevention, treatment of mental and psychological illnesses, as well as physical health.
The concept of health promotion is defined as the process that enables people to increase control over their health, as well as improve it. It usually constitutes a comprehensive approach that helps to implement social changes and that results in the improvement of general well-being and health.
Nowadays, health promotion is a priority for the representatives of the elderly population. However, it is essential to admit that aging is a physiological process of humans. The question of aging and health promotion has become the basis of many types of research. However, further research is needed to investigate the daily life of the given vulnerable category of people, and to analyze specific policies. Nursing deals with human care and self-care teaching. Therefore, nurses should provide life quality improvements through the use of strategies that aim at maintaining independence and autonomy.
Literature analysis has shown that there are links between the factors that impact health issues and health behaviors. Health promotion and treatment of diseases specialist functions. It has become evident that such concepts are interlinked. Effective treatment of illnesses requires a holistic approach that presupposes the analysis of the underlying causes of disease. Health care is considered to be an essential determinant of health. Therefore, health care systems should reconsider their responsibilities concerning health promotion, particularly in older adults. Hence, it is essential to identify what can be done to reduce the increasing burden of chronic diseases as health promotion functions across the whole health care spectrum.
Interdisciplinary analysis and investigation are essential for the protection and promotion of health. Moreover, the research indicates that there is a necessity to make a reorientation of social and health care services to provide strong support for health promotion.
The activities of health promotion are usually based on health determinants. Health-related literacy is also essential and is associated with the ability and desire of older people to learn and percept information. The effectiveness of providing healthcare information to the current category of people can vary depending on personal history, health domain, and the tone of the information source. Constantly increasing number of the older population makes the topic of health promotion essential to consider. It is vital to understand the way older people view and process health issues. It will help to provide them with the best and most valuable information to make important decisions.
The health of older adults and health promotion are closely related to the power that implies the choice of freedom regarding several issues. However, ethical dilemmas are on the basis of most issues. During the process of aging, elderly people experience many losses that are a natural lifecycle result. It culminates in old age when people are weak. Therefore, it is more difficult to predict healthcare actions. Unfortunately, many needs and difficulties of such a vulnerable group of people are often not taken into consideration. It is essential to make an emphasis on the health services and the change of health behaviors as it can improve overall health, lower the level of the disability risk, and improve life quality. Elderly people should be encouraged to participate in health promotion programs to improve their health behaviors and change their lives. Studies suggest an idea that health promotion reduces health care costs for those individuals who are willing to make changes.