Annotated Bibliography: Motivation for Medical Treatment

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Adams, Rebecca. N, Joseph, G. Winger, J., and Catherine Mosher. “A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Social Constraints and Distress in Cancer Patients”. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38 (2015): 294-305.

This is an article written by professors from the Department of Psychology and published in the Journal of Behavioral Medicine. It seeks to define the meaning of strength in terms of the connection between cancer-specific stress and social constraints, as well as define the major factors affecting and moderating these relationships. The article is premised on the qualitative and quantitative review of the literature in electronic databases, along with 30 studies that adhere to the inclusion criteria. The analysis is based on the correlation between social constraints and distress that patients feel during those encounters. It has been defined that there is an evident connection between these two factors. The relation was found to be substantially stronger when the diagnosis was given earlier. The correlation, however, did not differ in terms of age and gender. The findings also suggest that social constraints have a potential impact on the interventions aimed at reducing distress among cancer patients, particularly among the recently-diagnosed ones.

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The attention should be given to the analysis of the objectivity of the study, because variables are difficult to count in terms of behavioral responses, except for subjective reactions of the participants. The article is up-to-date, which can provide a further explanation regarding the relevance of the findings in the future. Apparently, the statistics can be used for understanding the way patients realize the seriousness of the diagnoses. The article is crucial in regard to the given research, because it explains the internal factors which guide patients who are involved in the respective treatment, as well as how the latter can be employed with the purpose of managing different stresses and challenges.

Bergelt, Corinna, Uwe Koch, and Corinna Petersen. “Quality of Life in Partners of Patients With Cancer”. Quality of Life Research, 17(2008): 653-663. Print.

This is an article introduced by the Center of Psychological Medicine and written by professors from the Institute of Medical Psychology with the aim of measuring the living standards of patients with cancer. The main purpose of the article is to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients’ partners. The examined cancer types are of different levels and complications. The authors have argued that cancer influences patients’ quality of life, and, therefore, it can also influence the same of their partners. The researchers have resorted to the questionnaire and survey of 373 partners in order to analyze the data by means of the descriptive statistics and t-test. The potential predictors of the QOL involved psychological, socio-demographic, and clinical dimensions. It has been concluded that male partners revealed a higher QOL as compared to female partners in the majority of results. Partners of both sexes reported a much lower mental quality of life as compared to the normal population. However, a higher quality of life of partners has been revealed among partners of patients who suffered from cancer of digestive systems. The research has a strong implication for the further analysis in terms of psychological outcomes of cancer in regard to lives of both patients and their relatives as well as partners. The research is objective in terms of the choice of partners considering the age and gender. However, one should not perceive the evaluation in comparison to the normal population, which is too relative. In general, the given research has a significant value for understanding how the QOL tool can be adjusted to assess the level of comfort and qualify of existence in a community in terms of the psychological stability.

Ferrell, B. R., Hassey Dow, and M. Grant, M. “Measurement of the Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors.” Quality of Life Research, 4(1995): 523-531. Print.

This article was published in Quality of Life Research by the professors from the Department of Nursing Research. The article refers to the behavioral medicine and focuses on challenges that are overcome by cancer patients. Quality of life (QOL) is among the leading measurement tools which evaluate the level of living standards and welfare of cancer patients in the society. It defines the psychological, physical, social, and spiritual wellbeing. The authors have referred to the theoretical framework, the so-called QOL matrix composed of four major aspects constituting the welfare of cancer patients. It comprises of the social, physical, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing. The abovementioned tools were chosen for the patients who participated in the mailed survey and questionnaires. Furthermore, the employed FACT-G tool was composed of 33 items, contributing to the validity of the research. CRUNCH software was used in coding, verifying, and entering the information. It also involved the descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and frequencies. The information received from the QOL and FACT tools also defined the outcomes of patients’ responses to external and internal challenges. The QOL instrument is effective for understanding the patients’ readiness to face challenges. The positive outcomes of a surviving patient were evident in the findings, providing a balance to the negative influences of surviving cancer. The research is valid and reliable in terms of the instruments chosen for the data collection and analysis. Additionally, the researchers have managed to take into consideration the external factors, such as the cultural and social backgrounds, which focus on the diversity of patients. The research can be employed for analyzing the given issue. The objectivity of the study is under the question, because the research does not specify the level and complication of patients suffering from cancer. Furthermore, the article was published in 1995, which leads to its failing to embrace the current research for the subsequent two decades. Nonetheless, the article can be helpful in regard to the given research in understanding the evident improvements in the current research studies.

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Finlayson, Catherine. Scott, Yu Ting Chen, and Mei R Fu. “The Impact of Patients’ Awareness of Disease Status on Treatment Preferences and Quality Of Life among Patients with Metastatic Cancer: A Systematic Review from 1997-2014.” Journal of Palliative Medicine. 18.2 (2015): 176-186. Print.

This article was written by the researchers from the Nursing College and published in Journal of Palliative Medicine. It introduces different factors and approaches which have been used for estimating the quality of life among cancer survivors. The authors postulate that the current improvements in the cancer treatment create problems for patients suffering from metastatic cancer who should make decisions in the light of more advanced types of treatment. The method is confined to the systematic review of literature of the period between 1997 and 2014 in order to define the evidence of the influence of patients’ awareness of the cancer status and treatment perspectives along with the QOL level among patients suffering from metastatic cancer. 490 articles have been explored, and nine major electronic databases have been searched. 15 articles have been chosen for the further evaluation with the chosen tool. It has been concluded that there is a limitation on the literature because of the sufficiency of operational and conceptual definitions related to the patients’ awareness of their physical welfare. It also included the studies which were associated with the disease prognosis, but not with the patients’ reaction to their medical conditions. The quality of life, however, is the major tool for evaluating the patients’ readiness to fight the disease.

The qualitative approach to the study reveals a certain objective and reliable results in terms of delivering the theoretical basic for the empirical research. It also promotes substantial amount of information about other empirical research studies in the field. However, the lack of relevant literature does not make the given study valid and credential. In general, the article is up-to-date, which means that there are no relevant research articles which can be helpful and appropriate for understanding the patients’ awareness.

Hatta, Taichi, Keichi Naria, Kazuhiro Yanagihara, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Toshinori Murayama, and Masayuki Yokode. “Measuring Motivation for Medical Treatment: Confirming the Factor Structure of Achievement Motivation Index for Medical Treatment.” BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 16 (2016): 22. Print.

This is the research study presented by the Kyoto University, namely by the professors from Uehiro Research Divisions for iPS Cell Ethics. The article was published in BMC Medical Informatics and Decision-Making. Its major purpose is to explore and assess the motivation among patients in regard to the medical treatment. The authors have argued that recent advances in chemotherapy have caused shifts in the cancer care in Japan, with the governmental organs introducing the reference to outpatient chemotherapy, requiring patients to take part in the treatment. The authors have employed the Achievement Motive Index for Medical Treatment that is composed of the self-induced achievement motivation and other factors. The index was applied to assess the university students, cancer patients, and healthy workers. The multi-group analysis has been conducted to receive and compare the mean scores. The correlations between the Self-Construal Scale and the developed index have been introduced. The results have demonstrated the possibility of two-factor framework of AMI-MeT, where the weak model suited best to the information received. The mean scores show that the motivation among cancer patients and healthy workers was much higher as compared with students. It has been concluded that the developed framework is relevant and effective for conducting the correlation analysis.

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The major strength of the article lies in the possibility of introducing a new measurement tool for assessing the patients’ readiness and enthusiasm regarding the cancer treatment methods. At the same time, the given article is not objective, because it evaluates a limited number of participants from specific spheres, which cannot be applied to other groups representing population. However, the article can be a helpful addition to the study under analysis, because it is innovative and highly motivating.

Heidari, Mohammad, Sara Shahbazi, and Mansureh Ghodusi. “Evaluation of Body Esteem and Mental Health in Patients with Breast Cancer after Mastectomy.” Journal of Mid-Life Health, 6(2015):173-177. Print.

This article is written by the professors from the Department of Nursing of the University of Medical Sciences. The article focuses on mastectomy among patients which can have a potential influence on their self-esteem. The authors have argued that mastectomy can affect attitudes and emotions of patients regarding their bodies and lead to psychological responses such as stress, depression, and anxiety. The purpose of the study is to assess the mental health and body esteem of patients suffering from breast cancer after the mastectomy operation. The study is premised on the descriptive and qualitative evaluation. The date analysis was carried out by means of questionnaires answered by patients from Seyed Al Shohada Hospital in Isfahan. SCL-25 and SPSS-PC were chosen for the analysis. The findings have revealed that the patients’ with mastectomy have a lower level of body esteem, which revealed through depressive disorders. There was also a correlation between the mental state and body esteem. It has been concluded that the relationship between the investigated variables are evident, leading to significant disorders among the patients.

The article is premised on the statistical analysis of the qualitative behavioral patterns, which can be perceived as valid and reliable. However, the sample does not meet the objectivity and is limited in terms of the environment, from which patients have been chosen. Moreover, neither age nor gender were taken into consideration. Nonetheless, the article is of a substantial relevance for the given study, because it enlarges on the patients’ readiness to stand the disorder. Additionally, the article under analysis provides both the numerical and qualitative overview, without adherence to the QOL measurement.

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Ng, Chong, Guan, Salina Mohamed, Mee Hong See, Faizah Harun, Maznah Dahlui, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, …and Nur Aishah Taib. “Anxiety, Depression, Perceived Social Support, and Quality of Life in Malaysian Breast Cancer Patient: A 1-Year Prospective Study.” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13(2015): 1-9. Print.

The article, which was presented under the auspices of the University Malaya by the professors from the Department of Psychological Medicine, was published a year ago. It focuses on measuring the level of patients’ depression and anxiety by means of the QOL. The scholars insist that the question of anxiety and depression as the major reasons for psychiatric morbidity is underexplored, particularly among patients suffering from breast cancer. The major purpose of the given research is confined to the analysis of the QOL among Malaysian women suffering from breast cancer for over 12 months. The study relies on the one-year cohort research, in which 222 female patients participated. The patients have been evaluated in terms of diagnosis with reliance on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and QOL questionnaire by means of Version 3.0 and EORTC tool. The data analysis involved assessing the age, culture, ethnicity, cancer stages, and types of treatment. The results have shown that the changes that occurred to women in terms of depression and anxiety levels have become much lower. However, depression levels remained unchanged. The conclusions refer to the fact that cancer women have a lower level of depression because of the social support and higher QOL.

The article underscores the significance of introducing the social support and higher living standards for people suffering from cancer, which can allow them to be more motivated during the treatment process. It is objective, but refers to a specific nationality, which limits the validity and reliability of the study. Nonetheless, it can become a guiding tool for providing the answers to the given research.

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