Chapter 1 Abstract
Chapter 1 highlights the view that psychology has a close relation to most other sciences. However, psychology is based on two key foundations regardless of it being a science or a service to the public. Lindsay (2008) informs that these foundations include the availability of a body of knowledge and skills, acquired from research and the ethics involved in knowledge and skill acquisition and application. The chapter also brings out the practice of ethics as a profession with practitioners versed with enormous knowledge and skills to carry out the required duties. In line with professionalism, psychological practitioners may include educational psychologists, clinical psychologists, and forensic psychologists. There are also researchers that are not directly involved in the delivery of psychological services. The main question asked in this chapter is whether an ethical code of ethics has to be developed and applied to all the individuals involved in psychological matters. Additionally, there is a description related to the development of the EFPA Meta-code of Ethics that ensures adherence to the required practices in the field of psychology. The development of the EFPA Meta-code of Ethics is crucial as it ensures that the ethical codes related to psychologists are consistent. It is also important to understand that psychologists practicing science (researchers) may face common or different issues compared to applied psychologists.
Chapter 2 Abstract
In this chapter, it is noted that ethical dilemmas are common in the field of psychology, and they always tend to have enormous effects on the overall performance of psychologists. Ethical dilemmas affect both psychologists practicing science (researchers) and applied psychologists. This raises arguments on the appropriate course of action to be taken to address the continuing occurrence of ethical dilemmas in the field of psychology. The chapter points out the view that the development of common ethical standards for all psychologists would be instrumental in stopping the occurrence of most of these ethical dilemmas. The practice of psychology will be saved in cases where common ethical codes are put in place to ensure that all individuals adhere to these practices for the proper delivery of the required services. Common ethical codes serve as a reference point for every psychologist and ensure that consistency is upheld in the performance of activities related to psychology. The chapter also discusses ethical dimensions that offer workshops for ethical education. In line with ethical dimensions, it is affirmed that psychologists may need to be educated on common areas, such as their roles and boundaries, confidentiality, codes and guidelines, and confidentiality to enhance ethics in the field.
Chapter 3 Abstract
The preamble of the EFPA Meta-code of Ethics is that psychologists come up with a valid and reliable body of knowledge through researches, which they directly apply to psychological processes and human behavior in different contexts. Additionally, psychologists strive to make informed judgments and choices in line with human behavior. Additionally, the chapter points out the view that psychology would only be effective in cases where relationships are developed hence building a better understanding. Lindsay (2008) opines that relationships emanate from the use of a common code of ethics and focus on similar objectives in psychology. Associations play a vital role in building the kind of relationships required for psychologists and ethical standards. Another important aspect to note from the chapter is that inequalities in knowledge and power influence the professional relationships among the psychologists and their clients. The ethical principles that should be taken into consideration in building client relations include competence, responsibility, integrity, and respect for the client’s rights and dignity. There is always an inevitable interdependence among these four key ethical principles. These essential elements will also play a vital role in ensuring impeccable relationships for individuals involved in psychological processes. Therefore, psychologists will always need to embrace reflection and dialogue when dealing with both clients and their colleagues.
Comments on Outstanding Parts
One of the most outstanding parts is in chapter 1, where it is stated that psychology is not different in any way whether taken as a science or a service to the public. It is always bound to experience similar processes and a common code of conduct among individuals. This part is extremely important to the profession of a psychologist as it helps eliminate restrictions that may exist in the field. This also implies that all psychologists, i.e. educational psychologists, forensic psychologists, and those working as researchers are able to work in harmony hence leading to the required outcomes desirable among clients. It is also relevant to the profession of psychology because it opens up the field, ensuring that diverse knowledge and skills are gathered to facilitate proper judgments and address client issues without restrictions in terms of psychology being a science or public service.
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Another outstanding part is in chapter 3. There is an assertion that effective relationships among psychologists and their clients are built in line with key codes of ethics including competence, responsibility, integrity, and respect for the client’s rights and dignity. Lindsay (2008) reiterates that this is important to the profession because it supports uniformity that is crucial in achieving the required objectives in the field of psychology. This part is important to the field because it would play a key role in leading to a consistency that is highly required in the field for the ethical standards to be observed at all times. It is also vital to note that this part is important to the field of psychology because it recognizes clients and directs psychologists on the manner they are supposed to handle clients with in order to protect them as they offer the required assistance. This helps clients develop more faith and trust in the field of psychology.
However, there may be doubts about the adherence of all psychologists to the stated common code of ethics. The doubts raised always point out the discipline of professionals in the field to adhere to these standards. Thus, key standards such as integrity, respect, responsibility, and compensation are important areas of applicability, but there is always doubt on the adherence of all professionals to these standards. It would be doubtful to state that professionals will automatically embrace these ethical standards and work in line with them because people are always bound to express different behaviors in the psychological process. These doubts raise criticisms on the manner in which professionals in the field of psychology are trained to acquire the respective ethical standards. The criticism is that the mode of passing these standards onto professionals may be ineffective and needs to be improved urgently for proper psychological processes to be attained.
These outstanding parts may also relate to other ideas that touch on research in the field of psychology. It is important to note that psychology does not only involve dealing with clients but may also involve extensive research to come up with knowledge and skills that guide the profession. Researchers in the field will be able to understand the important ethical aspects to incorporate in their studies and come up with proper information on human behavior. It is related to the idea of relaying research information, especially the one related to the provision of support to individuals with strange conditions. Information delivery in research must reflect high ethical standards that are similar to the ones highlighted in these parts.
Reflection of the Meta-code of Ethics in Light of the Reading
In light of the reading, the Meta-code of Ethics is highly effective in asserting the common code of ethics and ensuring that professionals in the field of psychology follow it. The Meta-code of ethics first points out the importance of National Associations in ensuring that ethical standards are developed in line with the existing conditions in the field. The code is clear about the fact that the development of ethical standards must be uniform to avoid any forms of conflict in these standards. According to the European Federation of Psychologists Association (2005), the Meta-code of Ethics is open in the manner it points out key ethical principles, such as respect for the integrity and dignity of individuals, competence, integrity, and responsibility. The assertion of these principles makes the code more effective in promoting proper ethics in the field of psychology. The Meta-code of ethics also takes into consideration the clients that psychologists are likely to handle. It points to different groups of clients including patients and any other person in need of psychological help. The understanding of different categories of clients ensures that professionals develop proper means of handling each category. In order to promote the understanding of the key principles of ethics, the Meta-code of ethics asserts lines of interdependence among these principles. It affirms that there has to be some form of interdependence that will ensure that these principles are incorporated accordingly in the psychological processes and the guidance of people. The interdependence of these principles is instrumental in ensuring that all professionals and researchers taking part in psychological processes achieve common targets. Therefore, it can be underscored that the Meta-code of Ethics is a key reference point to the required ethical standards among psychologists because of its direct approach to ethical standards in psychology.