Management entails the ability to influence others into adopting behavioral types that are geared toward the attainment of predetermined goals (Whetten & Cameron, 2011). It entails the ability to identify the prevailing interests and pool the resources necessary to meet the expectation of these interests (Dinsmore & Cabanis, 2011). This is where managerial skills are heavily needed since for comprehensive management, there must be effective teamwork, communication, delegation, negotiations, and time management leading to rational and comprehensive decision-making. It is of interest to note that effective management is centered on the pre-determined organizational goals that should supersede all other elements within the organization at hand (Daft, 2012). A good manager is both a good leader and a team player. In the former, a manager is supposed to bring forth a sense of direction to all other parties within the organization. This paper is geared at pointing out the variables at play in the line of ensuring one becomes a successful prospective manager.
At the core of any successful organization lays a well-coordinated team headed by the current manager whose job is to ensure the predetermined goals are attained promptly. According to Management by Objectives perspective, there is the need to ensure coherence regarding the objective set within the organization. It demands that all employees and their management must be in agreement in terms of the goals to be attained and the process and approach to be utilized. Championed by Drucker in the 1950s, this perspective agitated for people-centred approach when it comes to the realization of organizational goals (Kessler, 2013). When there is an agreement in terms of the process and the goals, all parties are highly motivated towards the attainment of individually assigned goals. The result is a more productive workforce who employs creativity, agility and continued determination towards success. Moreover, every individual within the organization is fully conversant with their responsibility since they were actively involved in its formulation (Appendix A). Drucker’s call is also heavily evident in Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y versus Contingency Theory whereby there is an agitation for more involvement of employees in both the decision-making and running of an organization.
When a firm utilizes Management by Objective approach, it becomes easier to attain the goals since the set goal is specific, measurable, agreed upon, realistic, and time bound. It means that the set goals are after effective consideration of both the available resources and the ability prevailing within the employees (Kessler, 2013). Drawing reference to the Theory Y versus Contingency Theory, the call for the management is to ensure that they make the employees feel they are treated as mature people who do not necessarily need supervision to meet their specific roles (Kessler, 2013). However, it is also demanded that the employees pay back to the management in the form of loyalty and self-discipline. Having the feeling of teamwork within the organization is not only helpful in ensuring that the employees are more productive but also leads to a scenario where the management team is freer to cater for other non-delegable duties. The result is an organization that is more actively involved in all its fronts.
It is conspicuously clear that indeed team work is not only essential to the welfare of any organization but also vital in improving the general productivity. As a prospective manager, there is the need to master the art of team building as it will be helpful in capturing the support of all parties involved within the organization at hand. Utilizing teamwork ensures there is a high level of both effectiveness and efficiency within the organization leading to an improved welfare of all active parties to the organization at hand.
In the realization of the importance of teamwork, the need to ensure mastering the art of being inclusive when dealing with the different tasks given should be understood. The result is a more informed decision-making full of diverse perspectives leading to an eventuality where a manager will consistently improve decision-making. When one utilized the art of teamwork, the task at hand becomes simpler due to the varied insights brought forward, making it possible to argue out the prevailing problem in a more rational manner.
Effective communication is important in any aspect of any organization’s operation. It provides a platform where all the necessary information is issued out to the relevant parties at the right time. It is through effective communication that employees are informed in the right manner and with the right information and, above all, at the correct time (Robbins & Coulter, 2012). In the context of the Chinese Whispers’ Activity, it is evident that sharing of information is prone to distortion if not done properly. Appreciating this, as a prospective leader, there is the need to ensure that the form of communication utilized within the organization is both practical and effective. As a manager, one has the responsibility of coming up with the most effective method of information sharing with the organization. Although there can be an agreement concerning the goals to be attained and the approach to be used in attaining them, without an efficient method of communication no goals can be attained (Severin & Tankard, 2010).
This issue is heavily evident in the Chinese Whispers Activity where the information given to the first person was totally different from the one the final person revealed. In the same manner, if the last party who is supposed to actualize the information gets distorted information, then the final action will be contrary to the expected way of action. According to the system theory of organization, an organization is comprised of different units that work hand in hand towards the attainment of commonly shared goals (Kessler, 2013). In most cases, these units engage in independent but interconnected chores that bring together efforts that form the larger organization’s operations. In appreciating this fact, effective communication forms the binding glue that enables the different units to work in a complimentary manner rather than in conflict with one another.
Communication is a significant component to any organizational success since it is through it that parties can coordinate their efforts in the line of realizing the common goals. As a manager, there is the need to enact a communication platform that is tailor-made to respect the realities and demands of the organization. Utilizing a poor method jeopardizes the ability to safeguard smooth operation whereby all parties are aware of what is expected of them at any given time.
Over the course, it is clear that with ineffective communication come poor, delayed or failed deadlines. It is a pictorial presentation of the demands that a manager is faced in his/her daily activity of the concerned organization. There is the need to develop such qualities as being thorough, clear and detailed when it comes to matters of communication. One challenge to effective communication is the “self” whereby one assumes that the other party understands the information without a due diligent follow-up to confirm it. According to Wilbur Schramm, any message becomes of relevance once the intended receiver can understand and act accordingly (Shram’s Model of Communication n.d.). It means that as long as the receiver of the message does not comprehend the intended reason behind the communication, the whole process is rendered useless. In staying true to this factor, a manager needs be keen on both the nature of the message and the approach utilized in sharing the message. Via this approach, it has becomes possible to ascertain that I am able to deliver the message in a manner that is clear and effective.
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Delegation involves the intentional action of giving another person the power to undertake a specific duty or set of duties (Williams, 2013). However, it should be noted that even if a manager has the power to delegate a task to another party, accountability remains with him or her. This fact implies that a manager has to be careful when delegating responsibilities because poor or irresponsible delegation may lead to dismissal. Once responsibility has been delegated, the manager at hand is exposed to reduced control when it comes to the outcome of the delegated task. Also, it involves placing a high level of trust in the capability of the party involved on behalf of the manager. On the other hand, delegation is one of the key roles played by the manager that goes miles in ensuring a healthy perpetuity of the organization at hand. Effective delegation is helpful when it comes to succession exercises (Williams, 2013). When one manager wants to leave an organization, he or she starts grooming his/her successor via delegation exercises.
Also, the delegation also makes it possible for the manager to have more time to perform other tasks that are exclusively performed by the manager. It makes it possible to ensure that he/she has ample time to weigh on the different perspectives that are viable to the prevailing situation thereby improving the decision-making process. It is through delegation that employees are able to forge through their career path through improved remuneration or increased responsibility that is accompanied with a raise. According to Herzberg Motivational Theory, some of the factors that make employees feel motivated include but not limited to; achievement, recognition, responsibility advancement, and growth (Latham, 2012). The significance of delegation is cemented via these factors all of which are realized using a genuine non-biased delegation exercise within an organization.
Delegation presents an enormous challenge to any manager since it not only involves sharing of responsibilities among the employees but also a keen and in-depth analysis of the capability of the concerned parties. There is an absolute need to perform this task with caution since the ability of the organization to meet set goals is heavily dependent on the efficiency involved in the delegation process.
With the prominent role played by delegation, it is of importance to understand that one is fully conversant with the variables at play when it comes to effective delegation process. Personal growth under this platform has been brought out by the fact that delegation of duties does not mean the transfer of accountability. This aspect of delegation presents the seriousness involved in the delegation exercise since one has to ensure that the duties delegated are practically doable by the recipient of the delegated duties. It brings forth the need to ensure that as a prospective manager, one is fully conversant with the prevailing manpower force within the organization. Identifying the strength and weakness of the labour force is vital to ensuring that each and every player within the organization performs where she or he is the best at. This approach will ensure that everyone is fully committed and in a place where he/she can give maximum output. This understanding has helped in appreciation of the fact that delegation goes further than just giving people responsibilities. It is more of ensuring that the each and every employee is given a position that will guarantee improved general output.
It is a phenomenon brought about by the fact that two or more parties have shared and unshared goals or processes leading to the shared goals (Tracy, 2013). A point to note is that when engaged in any form of negotiations, there are always two forms of eventuality, win-win or lose-win. Win-win entails a compromise whereby both parties give in to some aspect of the other party leading to a better position compared to that before the negotiation. Win-lose is where one party enjoys all while the other languishes. Negotiation demands a high level of intelligence since it involves convincing the other party to change the status quo. A company must understand that people are reluctant to accept changes and, therefore, influencing them to do otherwise demands much effort (Anderson, 2010). This is where the art of negotiation takes place whereby the intention is to win their trust and assumes some aspects that, in most cases, go contrary to their norms.
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As a manager, one should ensure that every employee believes in the offered approach, sequence, and demands. It is, however, not easy, especially where a manager is new to the organization and wants to make deserving changes that threaten the status quo but guarantee an improved level of output. According to Kotter’s 8 Step Change Model, change attracts resistance, and it is up to the change leader to effectively influence the other concerned party to accept the change (Burke, 2010). All the eight processes involved in this model (Appendix B) agitate for effective communication and negotiations. The give and take components of the negotiation make it possible to come up with a middle point from which it is possible to forge ahead as a team (Hayes, 2010).
It is evident that negotiation affects the nature of the relationships present in any organization. As a manager, there is the need to ensure that all the relevant parties involved in active negotiations feel the sense of respect. The demand is for one to polish negotiation skills since shared and non-shared interest is a common phenomenon while leading an organization. The trick is for the manager to strike a balance that can be accommodated by both conflicting parties.
Negotiations are very common when it comes to group work where individuals within the groups are designated different aspects of the common task. The back and forth healthy exchange within these groups is helpful to members as it ensures that each and every person within the group gets a fair share of responsibilities. It makes the art of convincing and listening vital for a prospective manager. However, it should be noted that, in negotiations, the result is not always the ideally expected one. One has to learn to accept what is fair and understand that sometimes unfair is necessary for the better bigger picture.
Time is never abundant to any company and, therefore, there is the need to ensure that there is maximum utilization of time. To ensure that time is utilized in the right manner, a well-detailed plan of operations that is adhered to by all parties should be provided (Koslowski, 2010). As a manager, one has to come up with a plan that is conscious of the potential and the challenges of the company at hand. Time management is essential is ensuring improved unitary output of the employees.
Time management is very helpful in eliminating the problem of procrastination within the organization. When there is proper time management, it becomes possible to assign enough time for every task relevant to the welfare of the organization. There is a prominent need to ensure that all the tasks are allocated enough time for them to be accomplished in a comprehensive manner.
The course has varied demands in terms of lecture time, assignment time and revision all of which require varied time allocation. One, therefore, needs to identify the different level of complexities that demands a varied amount of time. It has over the time enabled me to appreciate the rationale behind effective time management, a trait that is highly relevant in the future undertakings as manager.
Management is a complex undertaking that demands one to be an expert in different areas to provide both the sense of direction and coherence within the organization. It involves a combination of different communication arts aimed at ensuring that efficiency and teamwork are upheld throughout the organization. It is also evident that a successful manager is keen on ensuring that goals are clear enough to everyone in the organization. It ensures that the general output of the organization at hand possesses consistent growth as everyone is fully aware of the assigned task. The delegation also forms an important role both in terms of motivating the employees and ensuring that each employee is in the best place, leading to improved personal output. It is clear that for anyone to be an effective manager there is the need to be intelligent and open-minded. Managerial undertakings demand one to be solution ‘giver’ not forgetting the crucial role of the provision of a sense of direction to the whole organization.