This study is aimed at identifying factors that influence consumer behavior in online shopping in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is amongst the countries with highly advanced technology levels. However, there is a paradox between Saudi Arabia’s level of technology and the number of people who shop online. Factors that affect consumer behavior towards online shopping, both external factors such as a country’s political stability and internal factors such as trust and privacy were selected from the available literature. A survey and questionnaire which contained both closed and open questions were used for the collection of data. There were1000 participants who picked randomly from the population in Saudi Arabia. The collected data was analyzed using two main techniques. The data collected using questionnaires was analyzed using check analyses while that gotten through survey and scale questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS software. The result identified many factors as being determinant of consumer behavior towards online shopping in Saudi Arabia such as age, family settings, culture, and political climate. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.
Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia
The reaction of consumers towards a new product in the market or a new selling strategy or any other change in the market is of great concern more so to producers. Consumers are the main reason behind any production activity. Understanding consumers’ behaviors are one of the key marketing strategies used by producers to make their marketing policies and decisions based on the predicted consumer’s behavior. For instance, the law of demand, which is one of the theories of consumer behavior, holds that ceteris Paribus, an increase in the price of commodity results in a decrease in the consumers;’ demand for that product (Anderson & Putterman, 2006). Consumers in the market depict different behaviors to the changes in the market. There are many factors that determine a consumer’s behavior. The theory of consumer behaviors holds that in order to understand the behaviors of consumers, it is important to understand certain assumptions that make the understanding of consumer behavior easy (Bauer et al., 2005).
The theory assumes that consumers are rational market players who aim at maximizing their utility or level of satisfaction that is derived from the consumption of goods and services. Another assumption is that there are budget constraints that restrict the number of goods and services that a consumer can buy and hence their utility level. With the existence of a budget constraint, a rational consumer must make decisions that will enable them to maximize their utility using their strained budget. A consumer’s equilibrium is achieved at the level where the maximum satisfaction level that is achievable is attained and the least possible budget is used to achieve that utility level.
According to Bauer et al. (2005), a consumer’s behavior in the market is also determined by other characteristics associated with a rational consumer. These assumptions include;
The axiom of non-satiation/axiom of dominance- This assumption holds that consumers always aim at increasing their level of consumption. There is a direct relationship between the number of goods and services that a consumer can buy and the level of satisfaction. The more the number of goods and services bought by a consumer, which is determined by the available disposable level of income, the greater the level of satisfaction and the reverse holds.
The axiom of selection- This assumption suggests that consumers are always faced with a basket of goods and services that is greater than what they can afford. Consequently, consumers are forced to make a decision about the goods and services that they buy using the constrained budget. The choice of goods and services that one buys depends on the desired level of consumers. In making the choice, a consumer must forego some goods.
The axiom of completeness-This assumption holds that consumers are not restricted from accessing their proffered goods and services provided they can pay for them. The market has all the needed goods and services.
The axiom of transitivity- This assumption holds that consumers can arrange the range of goods and services in their order of preference whereby the arrangement does not change even when some goods are removed from the list. For instance, if a consumer prefers good x to y and z to x, that consumer will always prefer z to y.
Online shopping is a new marketing strategy that has come about as a result of advancement in the levels of technology more so the increased usage of mobile devices and computers (Ward, 2001). Just like any other new occurrence in the marketing strategy, online shopping has attracted different reactions by consumers. Just like in the traditional market, consumers continue to depict the behaviors that are explained by the theory of consumers. The decision on whether to purchase goods online or not is determined by factors such as the quality and price of those goods and services and the overall utility level derived from the consumption of products.
However, Schoenbachler & Gordon (2002), argue that online shopping is a new marketing strategy and, therefore, consumers now have to make two main considerations, unlike traditional analog shopping where consumers make a physical appearance to the market places. With online shopping, a consumer has to first consider the level of satisfaction that a product will give and at the same time consider the benefits and shortcomings of online shopping. Some of the factors that determine a consumer’s choice to shop online include a country’s political stability and the overall security of a country, and the family culture of a consumer (Sait et al., 2004).
Models for Online Consumer Behavior
The FFF Model of Online Consumer Behavior
The FFF model was developed by Dange and Priyadarshini in the year 2002 (Kumar & Dange, 2012) where the model combined both internal and external factors that influence a consumer’s buying behavior. The model suggests that a consumer can filter out certain elements of a product that enable them to make the purchasing decisions. The filtering elements enable a consumer to make a decision about where to buy but the decision on whether to buy the products or not is determined by the general consumer’s behavior that also affects a consumer’s purchasing decision in the traditional analog market. The FFF model is made up of three major parts; factors, filtering elements and filtered buying behavior.
There both external and internal factors that influence a consumer’s decision to purchase online. Internal factors are those that affect a consumer’s decision without his or her control. They include things such as a country’s demographics, social-economics, and the technology level of a country, public policy and culture among other things. On the other hand, internal factors are those that a consumer has full control and include a consumer’s attitude, learning, perception, motivation, and self-image just to mention a few.
The FFF model recognizes the fact that after considering both external and internal factors, a consumer must make a decision on the preferred store. The decision on the store depends mainly on three main factors; security, privacy, and trustworthiness. A consumer must feel secure and trust the services offered by the store dealer. Moreover, online shopping is founded on the value of trustworthiness since there are minimal if any physical appearances by both the seller and the buyer. Both parties must trust each other for business transactions to take place.
Filtered Buying Behavior
The filtered buying behavior refers to the set of expectations and motives that consumers have by buying a particular commodity. These expectations are things such as the expected level of satisfaction and other benefits that arise from the consumption of goods and services.
The advancement in the levels of technology has resulted in vital changes in society. Almost every if not all aspects of human activities have changed. The business sector has witnessed major changes in its operations. The move from traditional shopping to online shopping is one of the major changes that are of concern to business owners. With online shopping, sellers can reach a greater number of potential consumers leading to consequently increased sales. However, online shopping has resulted in increased competition since consumers now can easily access a variety of goods and services from many sellers. There is a disparity in the level of technological growth amongst countries. Lack of capital required to acquire improved technology as well as lack of expertise is some of the things that have contributed to the disparities in the use of technology across countries. Saudi Arabia is amongst those countries that have embraced the use of technology more so mobile phones and computers yet the impact of improved technology on its business sector specifically online shopping by consumers is low. There is a general gap in the behavior of consumers towards online shopping as depicted by various parameters such as age, marital status, gender, cultures and fiscal stability of individuals. This study investigated these parameters to extract relevant answers that explain the disparity in the consumer’s behavior towards online shopping in Saudi Arabia.
Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of this research study was to gain insights into the factors that direct the consumers’ attitude towards online shopping in Saudi Arabia and compare these factors to online shopping tendencies in the UK.
i) To inspect the principal factors that influence the customer’s reactions towards particular online products.
ii) To analyze how age, family settings, and culture influence the consumer’s behavior towards online shopping.
iii) Suggest policy recommendations that can help in boosting online shopping in Saudi Arabia
i. What are the factors affect consumers’ reactions towards particular online products?
ii. How do age, family settings, and culture influence the consumer’s behavior towards online shopping?
iii. What policy conclusions can be drawn?
Significance of the Study
The findings of this research study will of great use to all parties that are involved in the running of a business. The business persons will find this information very important as it will give them the knowledge about marketing and more so about the factors that determine consumers’ online shopping. The information will be helpful to all business people from any part of the world but those in Saudi Arabia will benefit more as the study will provide information about their targeted consumers. Businesspersons can use the information provided by this research to make appropriate adjustments in the running of their businesses and come up with improved marketing strategies that can enable them to benefit maximum from online shopping by the targeted consumers. For instance, the FFF model suggests that one of the consumers make a decision regarding their preferred store or dealer depending on security, privacy, and trust (ibid). Businesspersons can use this information to improve on their security, protect consumers’ privacy and instill the value of trustworthiness amongst its employees to ensure that they attract the highest number possible of potential online shoppers.
The findings of this study are also important to all shoppers, those who shop online and those who do not. The study has outlined various factors that affect the decision to shop online. Shoppers can use this information to make the right decisions depending on their circumstances. For instance, one of the major findings of this study is that political stability is one of the factors that make consumers shop online. Consumers in politically unstable areas can use this information to decide to shop online. Moreover, the study has elaborated on other benefits that consumers get from shopping online such as reduced costs that would otherwise be used for transport and saving on time that would be used in movements. These findings can provide insights to potential and existing consumers and help them to make informed decisions.
This study is equally important to policymakers who make decisions that affect the business sector. By comparing online shopping behaviors of consumers in Saudi Arabia, the study provides policymakers with the necessary information that they need to consider when making and implementing policies. However, the findings of this study are not only relevant to policymakers in the business sector. Consumers’ online behavior is affected by external factors such as the level of technology among others which is determined by decision-makers who are not necessarily from the business sector. Policymakers from other sectors will, therefore, find the information presented in this research very useful.
Another group that will be helped by the findings presented in this research study is the government. The government is the ultimate decision and, therefore, there is a need to ensure that the findings of the research are also useful to the government. This study focuses on the most important sector that has a great effect on a country’s economic status. The has a role to play in enhancing economic growth and development of its country and as such is interested in the affairs of those sectors that affect its economy such as the business sector. Moreover, the government has a role to play in creating a conducive environment that can enhance the growth of a business. For instance, the government has a role to play in enhancing a country’s political stability.
Last but not least, the findings of this study will be of use to other scholars who may wish to learn about the factors affecting online shopping in Saudi Arabia and in other countries. Scholars will find this research study very useful as it will not only provide them with background information on the topic but will also provide them with ideas that they can use to research about other related topics.
Theoretical Literature Review
Mochari (2014) argues that though factors such as the price and the quality of the product that are known for determining a consumer’s decision to purchase goods and services also apply in online shopping, these factors are of little influence. Consumers focus on other factors apart from quality and price when in online shopping.
The nature of a return policy availed by a dealer is one of the factors that influence consumers’ decision to shop online. Though the absence of physical appearance or contact between a dealer and the buyers makes online shopping convenient especially in terms of saving time and transportation costs, lack of close contact brings about a challenge of dissatisfaction where a product sent to the buyers may fail to meet the buyer’s expectations. In order to prevent losing the consumers, dealers establish a return policy that enables consumers to return products if they do not meet their expectations. The strength of a return policy varies from one dealer to another. A strong return policy is one of the things that consumers consider when choosing a dealer in order to minimize the risk of getting disappointments and incurring losses. According to a survey conducted by Gratify (Mochari, 2014), 20.8 million shoppers from Granify which is a software service consultancy company, consumers revealed that a strong return policy was the reason behind their continued loyalty to the company.
Another factor that determines consumer’s behavior in online shopping is availability and the level of consumers’ support by the dealer. Consumers look forward to getting support in the shipping of products and other after-sale services. The kind of services and relationship that dealers give to their existing consumers is the key determinant of consumer’s online shopping behavior.
Tiwari (2014) indicates that the main task in the study of online consumers’ behavior is no longer the understanding of factors that determine consumers’ behavior but the study of the relationship between the established factors and the kind of people who shop online. There are numerous studies that have come up with similar and closely related factors that shape consumers’ online shopping behavior but there is a gap in the study of the relationship of the known factors and the online shoppers. There are five main determinant factors that determine the behavior of online shoppers which include; information, perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived enjoyment and privacy.
The kind of information that consumers have about a particular online dealer is critical in determining the behavior of online shoppers. Trust is of great importance to online shoppers hence they must have adequate information regarding the kinds of products and services offered by the dealer.
The perceived usefulness of a product is also of top concern in online shopping. Online shoppers have expectations and desires they wish to meet by buying a particular product. The decision to shop online depends, therefore, on the likelihood of a product to be of use to the buyer.
Ease is also another consideration that buyers make when shopping online. The demonstration is one of the important after services yet is not possible with online shopping as there is no contact between a buyer and a seller. However, online sellers can still avail of this service through video and proper prescriptions. The decision on whether to purchase a product online or offline depends on the easiness of use.
Perceived enjoyment and privacy are equally important in determining consumer’s behavior in online shopping. Consumers wish to enjoy the services and products offered by the seller. Moreover, there is a need to be certain of privacy especially the protection of products from being tempered.
Bhowan and Gordan (2003) conducted a research study on the factors that influence online shopping which was conducted on September 2003. This study was carried out in South Africa where it aimed at establishing whether there was a difference in the online shopping amongst people depending on factors such as age, level of education and income among others and most importantly make a distinction between the factors that encouraged and those that discouraged online shopping in the country. The study selected two separate samples whereby one was comprised of elite college students and another by typical South Africans. The targeted population comprised 218 students out of which 80 were selected to form the sample population. The students were picked using the non-probability sampling technique to prevent sampling errors such as bias by respondents. The data was mainly collected through questioners.
Bhowan and Gordan (2003) research found out that approximately 34 percent of the sample populations were online shoppers while only an insignificant proportion of typical South Africans shopped online. The large difference in the number of college students and typical South African online shoppers indicated that age, one’s level of education and income are important determinants of consumers’ online shopping behavior. College students stated that the convenience associated with online shopping more so saving one time are some of the factors that encouraged them to shop online. On the other hand, typical South Africans were hindered from shopping online by factors such as inadequate online shopping and web site difficulty of computer illiteracy. Additionally, the study established the factors that encourage and discourage online shopping in South Africa.
Factors that encourage online shopping in South Africa
i. Buying online saves time
ii. Buying online is convenient as the services are available on 24 hours basis
iii. Buying online offers anonymity
iv. Prices are cheaper online
v. Items bought online are delivered
vi. There is greater selection of products to choose from
vii. Products that are not available in South Africa can be bought online from other countries
viii. There are many stores online to choose from
ix. Buying online allows one to rapidly survey a wide range of options
x. Buying online is a fun experience
xi. My children influenced me to shop online
Factors that discourage online shopping in South Africa
a) There is a long time delay between placing an order and the delivery of the item
b) The item cannot be examined or sampled before purchase
c) There is a risk dealing with potentially unreliable merchants
d) The atmosphere and ambiance of the traditional shopping experience is lacking
e) The web page is not user-friendly
f) Slow loading of web pages
g) Computer and/or technical malfunctions
h) Difficulty in finding shopping web sited and what products are for sale online
i) Poor and/or lack of customer service
j) Unable to communicate personally with a customer support representative
k) Shipping and handling charges are expensive
l) Merchandise may be of inferior quality
m) Merchandise may be not be delivered at all
n) Payment facilities are difficult to use
o) Too much personal information is asked to make a purchase
p) No confidence in the security of confidential information
q) Concern over the potential misuse of credit card
One of the limitations of this study is that the study population selected was not representative of the entire population. The sample was taken from a population of college students who did not adequately include every consumer. This leaves room for improved research that can use a representative sample population to enhance the reliability of the data corrected by minimizing sampling errors and make accurate conclusions.
Bahaddad et al. (2013) also conducted research on consumers’ online shopping behavior where the focus of the study was to find out ways through which business owners can increase the number of online shoppers. The study sought to find out the factors that attract consumers in Saudi Arabia to shop online by first finding out the factors that attract the existing online shoppers. The study used quantitative research to collect data where questionnaires. The researchers established that online hopping was less popular in Saudi Arabia and, therefore, there was a need to use a good technique of data collection and of selecting the sample. Random sampling was used to ensure the reliability of the data collected. Moreover, an independent survey was conducted to enhance the data collected through questionnaires. A group of 381 participants was picked to represent the population. The research by Bahaddad et al. (2013) found that organizational, technical factors and culture were the main factors that influenced consumer’s behavior in online shopping. This research study though was able to come up with important findings, had limitations. First, the sample size used was too small to represent the entire population in Saudi Arabia. The population could only suit a confidence level of 95 percent. The confidence level can be improved to at least 99 percent by using a large population size which is more representative. Secondly, this study focused on consumers’ behaviors in Saudi Arabia without comparing the findings with those from other countries. A comparison of Saudi Arabia’s consumers’ online behaviors with another country is important as it gives more detailed information.
Putit and Almowalad (2014) also conducted a research study on factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior. The study focused on the behavior of women online shoppers. Since this study was only interested with woman the study population was taken from a group of women from which a sample of 34 women, of different ages, was formed. Open-ended questions were given to the respondents as a way of collecting information for the research. A theme analysis method of data analysis was used whereby the researchers read the responses from the respondents and grouped that information in categories that enabled them to identify common factors that were identified by the respondents. Though this research helped in providing the relevant information regarding the nature of online shopping in Saudi Arabia, the researcher focused on only one gender leaving out on male respondents. The findings of this research are, therefore, subject to errors that come up as a result of bias by female respondents. There is the need to carry out a research in Saudi Arabia that incorporates people of all genders, that is, both male and female.
Lastly but the least, a similar study on online consumers’ behavior was carried out by Chaichi and Jawa in the year 2005. The study was also carried out in Saudi Arabia where the main objective was to find out the factors that determine consumer behavior towards online shopping. The study was based on the responses of 107 respondents, both male and female, who were picked randomly from the city of Damman. A 5-Likert scale was administered to the respondents and the data was later analyzed using SPSS. The accuracy of the information represented in this research study cannot be ascertained as there was an interruption of the selected sample where out of the 120 persons expected to form the study sample, 13 persons did not respond, making the sample smaller and hence lowering its confidence level below 90 percent. There is a need, for another study that can use a correct sample size in order to improve the accuracy of the information represented in this research. Moreover, the sample was taken from a population from one city in Saudi Arabia, Dammam. The sampling technique is questionable as Saudi Arabia is comprised of many states with people of different cultures and preferences hence the information collected from the sample was not accurately represented. However, the researchers successfully established the factors that affect consumers’ behavior in online shopping where they concluded that the quality of goods and services received from online shopping was the key determinant of consumers’ behavior towards online shopping.
In order to collect data for this result, the following steps were taken. First, since the information that was intended to be collected in this research was to be provided by consumers, there was a need to come with a questioner that would allow the researcher to derive information directly from the population. The questionnaires were open-ended which could give the respondents a room for explanations and elaboration of their points. However, the research also relied on other techniques of data collection in an attempt to ensure adequate and reliable data was used for the research. Survey instruments were designed to allow the researcher to collect more data and most importantly to compare the data collected through the two different techniques and to minimize the occurrence of errors that come about through relying on a single technique of data collection.
The information collected through questionnaires was analyzed through a theme analysis, where the researcher read through the responses given by the respondents and identified the responses into categories. The information gathered through the survey instruments was analyzed using a tool to calculate the Mean, Standard Deviation, and T- value. These results were gotten from the SPSS program.
Moreover, the questionnaire used in this research study both open and closed questions. The decision to use this methodology of data collection was arrived at by the need to codify basic data which could be collected using closed questions and also gain insights about the targeted population which would only be possible using open-ended questions. According to Leary (2011), one of the advantages of using both open and closed questions in a research study is that the methodology allows the researcher directly from the targeted subjects and allows the participants to give their views which might not be the case in secondary sources where the information may be altered. The information from primary sources more so through questionnaires is reliable.
On the other hand, the need to use a survey in data collection could not be overlooked in this research study. First, though Saudi Arabia is well- advanced in terms of technology the number of people who have embraced technology in their operations is ridiculously low (Sait et al., 2004). Moreover, Saudi Arabians are different in terms of their traditions and cultural orientations. There is a need, therefore, to carefully choose a data collection method that puts into consideration the differences that exist amongst people. The survey method of data collection was the preferred tool that could help in preventing errors that come up as a result of collecting data from the unrepresentative sample population and biased respondents. Secondly, online shopping is not popular amongst Saudi Arabians hence there was a need to conduct a survey in order to reach the required and relevant respondents.
The survey was comprised of two parts. The first part was focused on getting demographic information of the respondents, such as academic qualifications, age group, culture, and marital status among others. There were also other questions that could help the researcher to tell whether the respondent is suitable such as average Internet usage, whether or not the participant purchased goods over the Internet, and the average times of purchase. Another question was whether the respondent preferred online shopping to offline shopping.
The second part consists of factors that affect online shopping and which are not limited to Saudi Arabia. The focus here was mainly to get information about these factors more so in the UK. The factors that were noted were studied and tested in Saudi Arabia. This part required the respondents to give their views on the selected factors concerning their influence on consumer’s online shopping behavior in Saudi Arabia. There were five options provided in this research (strongly agree, agree, I do not agree nor disagree, disagree or strongly disagree). The questions were given to both buyers and sellers.
According to Verd and Andreu (2011), interviews are reliable primary sources of information as they help a researcher to get first-hand information about their research topic. However, more time is a need for interviews unlike in questionnaires. Moreover, there is a bureaucratic procedure to follow when conducting interviews such as booking for an appointment. Since there was a specified time frame given for the completion of this research, the research opted to use questionnaires, which serve the same purpose as interviews due to time limitation.
Choice of the Targeted Participants
The selection of the sample population to participate in this research was not easy due to the fact that the number of people who shop online is small and also the population in Saudi Arabia depicts a difference in their characteristics especially a difference in their cultural backgrounds. To reach the right respondents, the audience was collected through two major steps. First, an electronic invitation for participation was sent to the highest possible number of people that could be reached. This ensured that those people who participated in the research are internet users. However, to avoid leaving out on some people and to make sure that even those who did not have electronic addresses yet participated in online shopping were included, the paper questionnaire was distributed through social gatherings more so educational communities. Also, questionnaires were also availed at selected popular shopping malls. The total number of people included in the study sample was 1000 persons. The criterion for selecting the right respondents was as follows;
1. The consumer participant should have experience purchasing via the Internet.
2. The participant has used the global e-Mall system website in the case of sellers (e.g. eBay, Amazon).
3. The participant was required to 18 years of age or older.
4. The participant should resident or lives in Saudi Arabia for a couple of years or more.
In this research study, SPSS software (Statistical Package of Social Science) was used to analyze the data after the questionnaire had been distributed and collected. The results gotten from SPSS showed that there was a difference in the number of people who shopped online based on their gender, marital status, education level, level of income and age. Males represent 56%, while females 44% of the population in Saudi Arabia that shop online. Additionally, the greatest number of people who shop online in Saudi Arabia is comprised of the youths who line in the age bracket of between 20-25 years. Around 47 percent of people doing online shopping in Saudi Arabia are the youngest proportion in the age of 20-25 years. The second-largest percentage is by people aged 26-30 years which is around 36 percent. Moreover, results showed that there was a difference in the number of people who shopped online based on their marital status whereby the number of singles or unmarried persons exceeded that of married persons by a large proportion. Approximately 62 percent of online shoppers in Saudi Arabia are single with only 38 percent being married.
Additionally, the level of education of a person determined their likelihood to shop online. Half of the respondents were college students. Also, the level of income of a person determined a person’s online shopping behavior. The likelihood for one to participate in online shopping depended on one’s level of income. For instance, 28 percent of participants had an average monthly income but the percentage of participants decreased to 26 percent of those people with a monthly income that is relatively lower than average.
In order to increase the number of online shoppers in Saudi Arabia, business owners who engage in online transactions should give attention to good customer relations in order to gain consumer’s confidence. Moreover, they should engage in campaigns in order to persuade more people to try online shopping. This is in consideration of the fact that a large number of Saudi Arabians have the necessary technology to take part in online shopping but are unaware of the benefits associated with online shopping.
The government has also a role to play in promoting online shopping in Saudi Arabia. Though the level of technology in Saudi Arabia is high, there is a significant proportion of the population that is illiterate. The government should take initiatives to educate the affected population on the use of computers and smartphones. Moreover, society needs to be enlightened on the importance of embracing changes in the society that improve the quality of life instead of being strict observers of traditions that hinder development. The information provided in this research is useful for all parties who participate either directly or indirectly in the world of business. However, consumer behavior towards online shopping is determined are many some of which have not been covered by this research such as price, which may be of interest to future researchers.
This research was designed to determine factors that influence consumer behavior in online shopping in Saudi Arabia. The finding of this study showed that there are many factors, both internal and external, that affect consumer behavior in online shopping. External factors such as the political stability of a country, the culture of a person had a great influence on consumer behavior in online shopping in Saudi Arabia. Those respondents who admitted their strong reliance on online shopping stated insecurity in their areas of residence as one of the factors that encourage them to shop online. External factors that are specific to sellers such as the nature of customer services offered and trust were also very influential. Those respondents who revealed a lack of interest in online shopping attributed to lack of trust and lack of good customer services such as lack or return policy as some of the hindrances to online shopping. These respondents were mainly received through questionnaires. However, factors that also influence a consumer’s behavior even offline influenced consumers’ behavior in online shopping to a significant extent. The quality, the nature of products and the price of online products were some of the factors mentioned as being major determinants of consumer behavior in online shopping in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, a comparison of the findings from Saudi Arabia and the UK showed that there is no significant difference in the manner in which consumers behave towards online shopping. However, there is a difference in the consumer’s behave whereby the number of consumers who shop online is lower in Saudi Arabia than in the UK due to factors that are specific to the population in Saudi Arabia such as strict adherence to culture and traditions, and resistance to change.