Hypertension

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Hypertension
19.10.2022
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Evidence-Based Management Plan

In order to develop a proper treatment, it is essential to explore the data about a patient and develop a corresponding evidence-based management plan. While considering the symptoms, medical history, and basic indicators, it can be stressed that the patient is at risk of hypertension development. In this situation, the primary emphasis should be placed on the high blood pressure control that relies on a number of causes, such as weight, genetic history, and overall physical and psychological history of the patient. As soon as the causes and effects are identified, it is possible to develop evidence-based management plan and treatment.

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Pertinent Diagnostics

The patient has increased B/P (190/120) as well as complains about headaches and chest pressure. Such features are typical during hypertension. Hence, the increased blood pressure provokes chest pain and headache. The chest pressure can be associated with the additional strain imposed on the heart. Excess weight can be one of the leading causes of hypertension. As a proof, Jiang, Lu, Zong, Ruan, and Liu (2016) have proved that obesity is caused by energy excess, wrong eating habits, and lack of physical exercises. Therefore, the overweight is the leading factor that has a negative influence on the other organs, such as heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. Therefore, the structural changes can also lead to the increased arterial blood pressure and metabolic pathologies, thus causing hypertension. Judging from the case, the patient has recently gained weight, which could also become one of the reasons for hypertension. Apparently, it happened due to the depression, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Besides, the patient’s age can also become one of the contributing factor of the development of hypertension.

Education Plan

Hypertension belongs to one of the most widespread conditions that can cause serious complications unless necessary interventions are introduced. In order to prevent the development of hypertension, the educational plan should introduce changes in eating habits that can help the patient to take high blood pressure under control. First of all, this person should reduce salt consumption up to 2 grams or 2,000 milligrams daily (Bloch, Bakris, & Kunins, 2018). Further, the patient ought to decrease the amount of alcohol that can also provoke high blood pressure. Eating more fruits, vegetables, and fiber could also contribute to higher speed of metabolism, thus reducing weight and controlling blood pressure (Bloch et al., 2018). Eating fish can also help decrease blood pressure since it provides organism with all necessary nutrients as well as serves as a catalyst for other metabolic processes. Finally, caffeine consumption should be avoided to minimize the risk of heart attack.

Apart from the changes in dietary habits, the patient should also include walking or running in daily activities for at least 20 minutes. The exercises should be regular to sustain the right level of blood pressure and ensure oxygen exchange and appropriate level of metabolism (Bloch et al., 2018). Before defining the degree of physical exercises, a patient should evaluate the BMI. If it is greater than 25, the patient is obese (Bloch et al., 2018). Therefore, even insignificant weight loss and reduction in calories intake can help avoid health problems.

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Cultural and Lifespan Considerations

It has been reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) that there are 48% of cases of heart stroke and heart disease among African-Americans. Therefore, there are specific cultural considerations that can help this group avoid risks. For example, there are several rules of preventions, such as aspirin intake, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and refusal to smoke. Healthcare providers should inform the patients at risk whether they should take aspirin or not. In this specific case, the attention should also be paid to the analysis of the medical history of family, which shows that a patient’s father died at 49 due to heart attack. Therefore, apart from the physiological reasons for hypertension, the person has a genetic predisposition as well. Blood pressure management is one of the core interventions for patient since it can help regulate health state as well as avoid heart failure. Keeping blood pressure under control is especially important for African-Americans, as they are more predisposed to high blood pressure than other ethnic and racial groups. Further, managing cholesterol produced by liver is essential since it can regulate high-density lipoprotein or good cholesterol that can protect from heart disease.

Health Promotion or Healthcare Maintenance Needs

Health promotion is crucial for managing patients with hypertension, particularly when a patient is of senior age. The health promotion approach refers to the analysis of the prevalence of multiple chronic illnesses and illness of functional impairments among aging population. Therefore, medical care should also be supported with the closer observation of incidents and prevalence of acute forms. Therefore, the health maintenance needs are associated with the constant checking of blood pressure to eliminate the risk of kidney problems, heart disease, strokes, and eye problems.

It is highly essential for the patient to become self-organized and aware of the potential problems and threats of health problems. Therefore, constant interaction with healthcare providers can become a good solution. Hence, achieving and maintaining comfortable weight, refusal of smoking, physical exercising, and healthy eating should become the basis of the patient’s lifestyle.

The person with excess weight often suffers from depression, which implies that the obesity is obtained due to the increased calorie intake as a means of coping with this state. Therefore, the patient should start treating depression by attending psychiatrists and taking the corresponding medications.

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Follow-up and Referral for This Patient

It is crucial for healthcare providers to follow the standards for precise blood pressure measurement. Blood pressure should be identified as normal or elevated or with stages of hypertension to prevent the risks and provide the immediate treatment. The normal blood pressure is within 120/80 mm Hg limit (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). High blood pressure is the one which goes above the accepted norms, whereas lower blood pressure is below the accepted norms. However, the task of the physicians is to ensure that the patient has the standard normal blood pressure. Self-monitoring of blood pressure is also recommended either to control or withdraw the diagnosis.

Since the patient is in the group of individuals above 45 years, the risk of heart failure and hypertension is increased. It has been reported that almost 90% of African-Americans suffer from hypertension. It is also the leading cause of lethal outcomes and disabilities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). Therefore, the patient should be under stricter control.

Screening for additional causes of the disorder is also essential for the uncontrolled displays of hypertension. Since the patient has had the history of allergies, this issue is of special value. Therefore, there should be additional tests and lab analysis to make sure that the patient would not suffer from additional medications resulting in medical complications. The high-risk individuals should be assessed in primary care within one month of preliminary diagnose and should be approached with a mixture of both medical and non-medical treatment. Careful monitoring and dose adjustment are highly recommended for the patient owing to the extremely high pressure and specifics of family medical history. Constant control of alcohol and tobacco use is also an obligatory condition for improving the health state. Lastly, if his situation becomes more complicated, he should be referred to the cardiologist.

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