This study was aimed at exploring the efficiency of Learning Objects (LOs) in an online environment. This efficiency was determined by establishing whether lecture videos enhance the comprehension of information, if tutorial videos enhance the motivation for learning and whether project examples assist in the learning process. This literature review, therefore, highlights several significant areas that are pertinent to this research, which is the theoretical framework and the relationship between learning comprehension and lecture videos. It also includes a discussion of the impact of tutorial videos on the motivation to learn, the role project examples play in the learning process and a summary.
Learning Objects and Online Environment
The learning environment effects on learning outcomes have been under constant exploration by educational researchers (Ni, 2013). A good example is a study that was conducted by Entwistle and Ramsden in 1981 that identified an empirical link between learning approaches and the features of the educational environment as perceived by the learners (Ni, 2013).
Learning objects can be defined in various ways. However, broadly stated, a learning object is an instructional source that can be reused and is often a digital and web-based instructional source that has been developed for learning or as a support system for learning (Mestre et al., 2011). The production of learning objects is the primary activity contained in the design and development of online toolkits. Learning objects can, therefore, be further described as eLearning resources used in various subject areas in different formats. It is in this regard that their definition is unclear due to the various views that are held about online learning and instructional design (Watson, 2010).
Alex Koohang (2007) in his book “Learning Objects: Theory, Praxis, Issues, and Trends” discussed learning objects in the context of reusability (Koohang, 2007). In this case, the learning resources often designed to serve a particular purpose are utilized to support other uses (Koohang, 2007). According to Koohang (2007), for the LOs to be effective,” the content should be broken down into reusable, non-contextualized segments of information and data” (p.115).
Koohang (2007) classified the human mind into five conceptual categories: data (symbols), information (processed data), knowledge (application of data and information, understanding, and wisdom (evaluated understanding). Therefore, for learning to be effective using learning objects, there should be a consensus by the designer and students on the distinctions between the above-stated faculties. These distinctions allow for the identification of the various relationships; hence, increase comprehension and learning motivation (Koohang, 2007).
Instructional design theory is described as a design-oriented method that provides a description of the instructional methods and situations where the methods are to be applied (Reigeluth, 2011). The theory indicates that to facilitate the effectiveness of learning objects, the theory that is probabilistic in nature should be contained in the objects. Therefore, the objects should be designed in line with the context (Reigeluth, 2011). Chin and Williams (2006) further indicate that these learning objects should also be created depending on the environment (Chin & Williams, 2006). They indicate that the instructive, situating, constructive, supportive, communicative, collaborative, and evaluative environments should be considered designing LOs for effectiveness. Chin and William (2006) provide the seven principles of adult learning that should be incorporated into the design (Chin & Williams, 2006). Therefore, learning object effectiveness is contingent on the inclusion of the above-stated factors in its design.
Question 1: Do Lecture Videos Enhance Information Comprehension?
Learning is a continuous process of developing new ideas and information. The significance of learning is to understand the information being passed by the tutor or lecturer to the audience. Therefore, various methods of increasing learning comprehension have been adopted to conceptualize the process of learning among students. The use of visual aids in education has been linked to improving memory among students as they can capture information vividly when presented through graphical or visual presentation rather than orally. Therefore, the study identified whether the use of lecture videos enhanced information comprehension among students in a learning environment.
Studies conducted by Eison (2010) and Whatleyand Ahmed (2007) found that the use of lecture videos in education enhanced how students learned information in class. The study was conducted to assess how memory is developed to capture visual memories faster than theoretical information. Therefore, when learning was facilitated using visual aids like videos, the learners’ minds were in a position to grasp more information faster. The study by Eison (2010), observed that classroom courses that used step-by-step video lecture presentation helped students learn more topic review needed. The systematic use of video in lectures helped the lecturer gage students’ activity during class participation. Moreover, the process as identified by Whatleyand Ahmed (2007) can be attributed to the fact that lecture videos brought a sense of entertainment that enhances comprehension among students.
Flores and Savage (2007) conducted important research on how students responded to classroom lessons that were carried out through streaming lecture videos and hypothetical teaching. The study investigated how students acknowledged a high learning experience through streaming lecture videos than the use of chalk and talking lessons. The learning environment was significant in determining how students related to various learning information and their ability to grasp information. Various subjects, when presented in a particular form, increased the students’ understanding more efficiently. Flores and Savage (2007) argued that individual lecture video presentations were more meaningful compared to the use of PowerPoint presentations. The streaming of lecture videos was more effective in helping the student conform to various learning variables. The uses of lecture videos in subjects that are science-related were identified as assisting many students to understand the material more quickly versus theoretical explanations or through laboratory experiments. Students have a tendency to compare information to what they can see and observe. Through video lectures on scientific experiments, they can quickly develop interest and attention. Moreover, based on the fact that science subjects require deeper concentration and attention, streaming lecture videos on such topics assisted students in comprehending the scientific question. It is easy for them to relate to graphical images observed in videos than those that they observed during theoretical experiments or in books. Moreover, lecture-streaming videos gave the student a better account of how events unfold that they could then quickly follow up and memorize later during the course work.
A study by Caspi, Gorsky, and Privman (2005) focused on how students responded to a video recording of a lecture concerning enhanced their comprehension. The research found that viewing enhances the cognitive aspects that improve comprehension. Similarly, Brecht (2012) supported the ideas, observing that watching lecture videos appeared to be passive and, therefore, accelerated high cognitive activity that proved necessary for comprehensive learning. Most students, even those who appeared to be behaviorally inactive, indicated a positive response when it came to visual presentation.
Brecht (2012) conducted a study on how video learning among students intrigued several aspects of their senses. For instance, lecture videos activated students’ visual, auditory and writing. In light of this, the students maintained a sharp sense of observation that aided them to comprehend information during their learning. Videos presented information in two forms; that is audio and aural. This multiplicity enabled information to be relayed more efficiently to students through lecture videos than theoretical education. Thus, students adopted multiple entry points when learning via video streaming. They underwent various steps in processing information that they received through video learning. The ability to depict images at the same time related to the audial information that boosts their cognitive aspect enhanced their comprehensive nature. Brecht (2012) further illustrated that learning conducted through lecture video combined picture, movement, and count together with captions that assisted the learners to relate more quickly to information.
Casp, Gorsky, and Privman (2005) sought to determine how lecture videos affected student rate of comprehension. They identified that most students who were exposed to video learning developed a faster response in learning new information and ideas. In the account of fast learning, lecture videos were identified to assist learners to comprehend more information within a short period compared to other forms of learning. Video learning enabled students to cover a whole lesson within a short duration than a normal learning process. Moreover, similar study results were observed by Whatley and Ahmad (2007) where they noted that videos were used to record summary learning that aided students to develop the comprehensive skill that assisted them in revision. Learning material and revision material that is recorded in lecture videos helped the student in a fast learning environment. The ability to remember ideas and information was enhanced through images that were followed by audio information, helping the students recall quickly the information they had learned during their exams. Their ability to comprehend information at a faster rate was facilitated through videos that they observed and watched.
Types of Lecture Video to Use in Enhancing Comprehension
Smit (2006) in his study identified various video lecture methods that were implemented in a learning institution to improve the learning ability of students. The study elaborated that the format and procedure for recording and delivering video lectures contributed to the effectiveness of student comprehension in schools. There are several methods that can be adopted in lecture videos to enhance student understanding in a classroom environment.
Lecture capture. Typically, this concept involves the recording of live lecture lessons in school. Most of the lessons are captured using a video camera during an interactive class experience. Live video was used to capture and preserve the interactivity of a lesson and various activities during the course. This method can be used to enhance student comprehension as they can easily relate to the events that were recorded during the lesson.
Talking head video. A talking head lecture video also involves a webcam recording a teacher teaching or expanding on a particular subject of interest. Talking head lecture videos are commonly used to increase student understanding of the particular topic matter of their interest. The lessons recorded in this type of lecture video are easy to comprehend as they only cover a small area within a learning unit. The lecture recording the talking-head video is always specific to their teaching to help increase students understanding in their field of weakness. Most individual learning can be conducted with the talking head lecture video as it assists in the quick grasping of information and comprehension.
Voice over presentation. This form of lecture video is used in a PowerPoint presentation. The video recording is done by supplementing a PowerPoint presentation with an explanation voice over the power slide presentation. In a voice-over presentation, the student can easily combine visual information together with an audio sound to enhance the comprehension of the students. The ability to learn through visual and audio increases the student’s ability to connect what they see and what they hear. Moreover, the recorded voice and the visual presentation allow the lecturer to use verbal skills. The voice-over presentation is conducted in a simpler way that makes the student understand lecture lessons quickly.
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Interactive lecture videos. This method is one of the most sophisticated methods of lecture video that is used in learning. An interactive lecture video includes the use of video and audio together with PowerPoint slides among other features. Interactive videos also concern with joining the learner and lecturers to share ideas and information during the video session. This form of a video presentation is more elaborate and easy for students to comprehend. It is also dynamic and can be switched between the slides and the video to enhance more information and details. The materials used in the interactive lectures are also easy to assess, thus, making the learning comprehension more effective for the students. Nevertheless, an interactive lecture video combines the use of interactive media presentation and video information that can assist in learning comprehension
How to Consider the Best Lecture Video to Enhance Comprehension
A research study by Oddone (2011) reiterated the idea of the value of learning to students at different levels using lecture videos. The study recommended that the use of video learning should be in line with the level of the participants. In particular, the video must characterize the teaching technique that is understandable to the learners. Oddone (2011) further elaborated that learning was a process that must be practiced and graded according to the target group. Nevertheless, when considering the type of lecture video to be used the nature and characteristics of the audience must be considered. As observed by Oddone (2011) and Nikopolou-Smyrni and Nikopoulos (2010), learning through video depending on the nature and type of information being addressed. The two studies identified that various subjects are comprehended differently through lecture videos. It was easier to understand scientific, documentary-related and other literature work through lecture videos than it is to comprehend language learning.
Therefore, as it relates to lecture tutorials, according to the opinion of Nikopolou- Smyrni, and Nikopolous (2010), not all subjects were readily comprehended through video learning. Some were understood better using traditional methods such as charts, audio recordings, reading notes, and verbal communication rather than through video lectures. In particular, the use of video media in a classroom that contains students of particular interest from the video study can cause comprehension to be difficult. Furthermore, it was observed that lecture video, as a learning method, was specific to its target; not all learning can be conducted through videos and be comprehended without creating confusion. Students learning languages found it hard to comprehend videos that are scientific in nature. Moreover, those who were not addressed in the lecture video found it hard to comprehend the information in the videos. Furthermore, video learning is based on information that, without prior knowledge, makes it confusing to understand. Considering the nature of the subject being taught, it was determined that students, when choosing the subject to learn over a lecture tutorial, should choose the ones they can relate to. Learning through lecture videos can be strange to those not familiar with the topic of study. Moreover, it was established that a classroom that learns continuously through video lectures developed an interest that in turn leads to positive results.
In their study, Nikopolou-Smyrni and Nikopoulos (2010) observed that most students lost concentration within the first fifteen-minute of learning. Furthermore, they developed a negative attitude depending on the nature of the learning environment. Thus, their study observed that the nature of the video lecture presentation determined significantly how the students comprehended information in class. Most video recordings that were considered boring and did not attract the attention of the student failed to enhance the concentration of the students. Students learned better when presented with lecture videos that were engaging and conveyed information that they could easily relate to. Thus, when developing a lecture video, the lecture should be more relevant to enhance comprehension among students. Moreover, based on the study by Nikopolou-Smyrni and Nikopoulos (2010), it can be deduced that video learning used in the classrooms that were performed with extra activities increased student participation in learning. This modification was found to increase the concentration of students and their understanding in general. Student concentration towards entertainment was enhanced when the source of entertainment contained humor and was highly interactive, it captured their attention.
Question 2: Do Tutorial Videos Enhance Learning Motivation
Learning provides the student with opportunities for intellectual growth that results from reasoning that is scientific, a thought process that is abstract, and formal operations (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). The rise in information technologies has created new environments for learners and teachers including new areas of research. Today, enhanced and promoted learning by information technology is on the rise (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006).
There is a need to deliver education to students in remote areas who have little access to campuses in academia or feel comfortable studying away from the campus (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). E-learning today is the most efficient alternative to the traditional classroom and provides an opportunity for lifelong learning and learning on-demand (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). This new form of learning enables an integrated solution for learning that contains all the material, tools, and services for the delivery of education (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). While the development of such an effective, efficient, and economic learning platform is vital, its impact on the student in regards to motivation to learn is even more important (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011). Student motivation is among the essential elements of the learning process. A correlation exists between motivation and learning outcomes. Therefore, the process or medium of learning should evoke significant motivation to the learner to promote positive learning outcomes (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011).
Learning occurs where there is the interaction between the cognitive and motivational faculties in the brain (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). Studies have indicated that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for the learner influences the learning process tremendously. These students learn due to the sense of satisfaction (both internal and external) generated from the motivation (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). Motivation is a process requires the performance of certain physical and mental activities by the student to achieve individual goals (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011). Therefore, motivation is among the most vital factors that an educator can target to achieve positive learning outcomes and improve learning (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011).
According to the study conducted by Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, and Nunamaker Jr (2006), “video is a rich and powerful medium being used in e-learning” (p.16). They indicated that the videos can present information in a consistent and attractive manner (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). Their study was conducted among randomly selected students who were placed in individual groups in four different settings. The results of their study indicated that those students that were in e-learning environments had performed significantly better compared to their counterparts. These students also reported a greater level of satisfaction, a factor indicating greater motivation to learn as explained above. These findings suggest the impact of tutorial videos on learning motivation and hence, the need to integrate such videos in e-learning systems.
Bravo, Amante, Simo, and Enache (2011) conducted another study that was aimed at exploring the results of using videos as a tool for education that helps increase the motivation of students in any discipline. The study focused on live streaming videos that were employed by twelve lecturers among 487 students (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011). These students attended the School of Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering of Terrassa (ETSEIAT) and were selected from mechanical, industrial, management, and aeronautical engineering courses to create diversity in selection(Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011). The streaming videos were used in business economics, industrial statistics, quantitative methods, and information systems. They were also applied in the design of production and logistics systems, material technologies, and continuum mechanics (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011). The results revealed that the live streaming low-cost videos had a positive motivational impact on students from all faculties (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011). The students further reported that they considered the videos to be a more enjoyable means of introducing a subject and increasing their motivation. In addition, the videos provided graphic and practical applications of the intellectual concepts; hence, enhanced the students’ interest in the content (Bravo, Amante, Simo, & Enache, 2011).
In a study by Choi and Johnson in 2005, the aim was to provide an investigation of the potential of applying a constructivist method to the background-based video tutorials to promote learning. They conducted an examination of constructivist theory video-based instruction that affects the learning and motivation of a student. As highlighted above in the theoretical framework, the context in which the learning objects are used determines the object’s effectiveness in motivating learning. They considered learning to be knowledge and preservation of information while motivation was attention, significance, self-assurance, and contentment (Choi & Johnson, 2005). The researchers compared the perception of instructions that were video-based and those in texts in an online context. The motivation among learners between video-based instruction and traditional text revealed a significant difference (Choi & Johnson, 2005). The students in this study further indicated that video-based instruction was easier to remember. This difference highlights that context-based videos enhance the retention and motivation of the learners (Choi & Johnson, 2005).
A study by Chen (2012) indicated similar results as those stated above. The study was aimed at developing and evaluating the video-on-demand learning system (Chen, 2012). The thematic integration strategy was combined with an interactive video. This video was based on instructions as contained in the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Chen, 2012). The learning and reflection of the participants were investigated. The testing was done via a post-test, IMMS and teaching activities that were experimental (Chen, 2012). The learning environment was self-controlled; hence, the participants could select their areas of interest through a hyperlink. This self-control reduced the cognitive load for students. Moreover, the video had the textual and pictorial elements required for learning present simultaneously that reinforced learning (Chen, 2012). The results revealed that the interactive thematic video promoted engagement of the students in both learning and recall (Chen, 2012). The experimental group in the study had higher post-test scores and motivation compared to the control group (Chen, 2012). These findings provide a clear indication of the impact of tutorial videos on the motivation of learners.
Prins et al. (2011) went further and examined the effectiveness of these videos on children with mood disorders (ADHD). They explored the possible benefits of including gaming elements as part of the video material and its impact on the motivation and training performance among these children (Prins et al., 2011). The examination was done specifically to determine not only motivation and training enhancement but also the improvement of efficacy (Prins et al., 2011). Children with ADHD aged between seven and twelve years old were selected and assigned to Working Memory (WM) training design in the form of a game or similar regular training in a non-game format (Prins et al., 2011). After completion of three weekly sessions, the results revealed those who used the WM training in a game version had greater motivation, performance, and WM (Prins et al., 2011). Therefore, the training that had elements of video games improved the motivation, performance, and working memory of normal children and those with ADHD.
Finally, a high school teacher conducted a study at St. Francis DeSales High School in Columbus, Ohio. The study was aimed at examining the impact of video clips as current instructional technology for improving the motivation and learning of students (Sharritts, 2011). Sharritts used test scores and AP calculus and AB results from students from the 2009 -2010 academic year as the control group and 2010-2011 academic year results as the experimental group (Sharritts, 2011). Further, the students took pre- and post-test attitude tests and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected (Sharritts, 2011). The data was analyzed, and Sharritts noted significant changes in both data. Sharritts, therefore, concluded that the use of video clips improved student motivation and learning.
Question 3: Do Project Examples Assist Learning Process?
The commonly stated belief is that the transference of individual skills is the primary function of education (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). However, research today indicates that the presentation of knowledge to the learners and the operations they perform while learning determines the knowledge of the student and application of this knowledge when relevant (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). According to Brown et al. (1989), classroom activities do not involve any contextual features of real-life situations that require problem-solving skills (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). Therefore, a lack of these features weakens the students’ ability to transfer knowledge and apply it outside the school setting. It is in this regard that questioned whether routine problems could be transformed into activities that involved problem-solving to promote mathematical reflection among students (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010).
Studies have highlighted that to transfer knowledge and develop effective learning, educators are required to provide training related to real-life tasks (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). These studies also indicated that cases and examples should be explored within their natural contexts, as they occur not as only textbook examples that are the promotion of Project-based Learning (BPL) (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). Project-based learning is an educational model that involves the organization of education and learning around projects (Thomas, 2000). PBL handbooks for teachers define projects as complex tasks that are based on challenging questions or problems (Thomas, 2000). They involve students in design, solving problems, decision making, and investigative activities (Thomas, 2000). These projects aim at providing the learner with opportunities to work autonomously and develop authentic products and presentations (Thomas, 2000). There are distinct features contained in PBL. These projects, combined with a lack of a universally accepted model or theory on PBL, have produced a variety of research and activities about this learning method (Thomas, 2000). However, three basic traditions are underlying PBL practices. They include Outward Bound Wilderness expeditions, post-secondary models of PBL, and university-based research in cognition and cognitive science applications (Thomas, 2000).
Eskrootchi and Oskrochi (2010) in their study highlighted that PBL is a blend of conventional and traditional subject matter goals used in reliable learning environments (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). The logic behind using certain activities in education was that they promote understanding. This understanding is developed through the application and manipulation of knowledge gained based on real-life context (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). Therefore, PBL provides the appropriate and productive environments that promote the development of metacognition, hence, learning.
Wynn, Mosholder, and Larsen (2014) conducted a study that involved an evaluation of the outcomes of PBL Learning Communities (LC) (Wynn, Mosholder, & Larsen, 2014). They compared these findings to the results of the same course that was taught without LCs and the Traditional Lecture and Discussion (TLD) (Wynn, Mosholder, & Larsen, 2014). A neo-Piagetian framework was used to develop an approach for reflective metacognition. This approach also identified the target for higher-level thinking and the complex problem-solving ability for adults that is post-formal thinking dynamics (Wynn, Mosholder, & Larsen, 2014). The researchers also conducted measurements on changes in cognitive abilities, engagement, and perception of the relevance of the content both qualitatively and quantitatively (Wynn, Mosholder, & Larsen, 2014). Results from the research indicated that those students that were taught with PBL LC had the highest levels of change in post-formal thinking, engagement, and perception of the relevance of the content (Wynn, Mosholder, & Larsen, 2014). The results further indicated that in both PBL LC and PBL were higher levels of learning compared to TLD (Wynn, Mosholder, & Larsen, 2014). Therefore, it indicated that the use of project examples was instrumental in enhancing learning among students.
Poonpon (2011) conducted research aimed at investigating the opinions of learners in the country about the implementation of PBL in classrooms to encourage the application of the language skills and knowledge of their field of study to complete tasks (Poonpon, 2011). One of the most critical problems for English teachers in Thailand is the lack of adequate background in the language to carry out tasks needed to teach English (Poonpon, 2011). It also investigated opinions on how PBL could enhance the four language skills that are listening, speaking, reading, and writing (Poonpon, 2011). The study employed forty-seven students taking an undergraduate English information science course. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview to elicit the opinions of students on the implementation of the project including how the project would enhance their English skills (Poonpon, 2011). A qualitative analysis of the data revealed that the students suggested how the interdisciplinary-based project should be implemented in the language classroom and that this would enhance the learning of the relevant English skills (Poonpon, 2011).
Tosun and Senocak (2013) conducted a study aimed at revealing the impact of PBL on metacognitive awareness and attitudes towards chemistry. They used participants in their study who came from different academic backgrounds. Project-Based Learning interchangeably referred to as Problem-Based Learning also enhances the learning process for students with weak educational backgrounds (Tosun & Senocak, 2013). In the study, pre and post-test experimental studies were employed and quantitative methods used to obtain the findings. The sample involved 70 undergraduate students in their first year of study who were taking introductory Chemistry or ChemistryII lessons in the institution of higher education (Tosun & Senocak, 2013). Data was quantitatively collected using a Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and the (CAS) Chemistry Attitude Scale throughout the spring semester (2011-2012). Dependent model t-tests were used to make comparisons between the before and after test results (Tosun & Senocak, 2013). The results revealed that PBL is effective in the development of metacognitive consciousness levels among those students that had weak scientific knowledge backgrounds (Tosun & Senocak, 2013). They also revealed that PBL positively increased the attitudes toward the chemistry of such students. Hence, it enhanced learning the learning process (Tosun & Senocak, 2013).
PBL is also useful in enhancing the learning process for pupils with education intricacy (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). Filippatou and Kaldi (2010) conducted a study whose aim was to establish the effectiveness of PBL on primary school students with education impenetrability (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). PBL is also useful in enhancing the learning process for pupils with learning difficulties (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). This effectiveness was in regard to their educational performance, task importance, group work, the ways of teaching applied and attitudes towards self-efficacy. The scope was as part of an even larger study that comprised of pupils with mixed learning abilities from six fourth-grade Greek mainstream primary school classrooms (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). They implemented a project that lasted eight weeks and involved environmental studies within the syllabus on the topic of sea animals. Pre-experimental and case study investigations designs were used. However, in the current research data used was for only those students with learning obscurity (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). The researchers found that PBL was beneficial to students with education intricacy in the study’s areas of interest. These are intellectual performance, motivation, chore value, group work (acceptance and engagement) and self-efficacy, (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). The results further revealed that these students chose empirical learning compared to traditional TDL. In essence, it implies that PBL enhances the learning process among students and pupils including those with learning disabilities (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010).
In another study by Holubova conducted in 2008, the aim was to establish the effectiveness of new methods of teaching physics and science (Holubova, 2008). The results revealed that to promote an understanding of physics and other sciences, there was the need to instruct pre-service tutors in ways that stress the engagement in the personal activities of students (Holubova, 2008). In addition, the engagement in competencies on how to generate an interdisciplinary plan (Holubova, 2008). The results, moreover, concluded that project-based teaching of physics and learning is among the most efficient approach of teaching science for appreciating (Holubova, 2008). Holubova (2008), from the results, further highlighted the need to offer in-service tutors with instruction and sample projects that have proposals on how to run, assess, and develop an interdisciplinary plan (Holubova, 2008). Finally, the researcher concluded that projects are vital “real-world” physics modules and that modern physics and problems in everyday life can be integrated into high school curriculums (Holubova, 2008). Therefore, it indicates that PBL enhances the education development for students. It does this by providing real-world examples and problems for the students to tackle their projects.
Finally, a study by Ba? (2011) focused on the effects PBL had on the academic achievement and attitude towards students taking English lessons. The study was conducted among students in the ninth grade during the 2010 – 2011 academic year at a high school in Nidge, Turkey (Ba, 2011). Sixty students participated in the pre-and post-test control groups. SPSS 17.0 was used for quantitative data analysis, arithmetic means, and standard deviations mathematically determined for each group. The independent sample t-test score was used to determine the significance level between the two groups at 0.05. The results revealed a significant difference in the attitude scores between the experimental and control groups. These findings further showed that PBL was a more effective approach to the development of positive attitudes in English and reasonable levels of achievement. The results revealed that students that had been educated through PBL were more successful and had higher levels of attitude towards the lesson. These findings were compared to those students who were educated using the traditional instruction based student textbooks (Ba, 2011).
Learning has embraced the use of technology in the current education system. More learning techniques are initiated to assist the student in attaining the best results. Indeed, lecturers and teachers are adopting improved strategies in teaching. Nevertheless, the adoption of video-based learning in schools has been significant in supporting the comprehension of information among the students. Teachers have introduced the use of learning aids such as pictures, graphs, live acts, and video streaming to increase the quality of education. Studies have indicated that students perform equally well when subjected to a learning environment that has learning aids used such as videos and pictures. The impact of streaming live videos for learning among students assists them in increasing their concentration as well as their understanding. Thus, the use of lecture videos in learning institutions has its benefits in assisting the student to comprehend information and improve their performance.
The most reported consequences of videos have mainly focused on the negative implications of the videos. This concern has resulted in significant research on aspects of videos such as addictions, increased aggression, and other adverse effects. However, the commonly ignored findings are those tied to the positive effects of these videos that, until recently had not received significant attention. Research from the past has highlighted that, for example, playing video games improves hand-eye coordination, boosts esteem, and reduces reaction time.
While it is true that videos can distract the attention of learners, especially adolescents, it is equally important to note that such technology can have a positive impact on the education of an individual especially with the rise of e-learning as a learning object. Videos have the capacity to engage learners in their learning experiences as the worlds increasingly shift to e-Learning. This advancement has resulted in the emergence of the concept of edutainment. By observation, learners prefer such an approach to learning and quantitative evidence as that presented above highlights that particular vital learning skills are enhanced by using videos. This, therefore, stresses the importance of videos in skill development and as a learning object in the online environment.
Education should involve equipping learners with relevant cognitive and socio-emotional skills. These skills allow learners to adapt quickly to the dynamic environments that exist in every realm of professionalism in the world today, for instance, in science and technology. It recognized today that pursuits of a multidisciplinary scale are required to advance knowledge and apply this knowledge.
PBL is an active learning approach that is centered on the learner. In this approach, problems that lack structure is used as the starting point and the anchors for inquiry in the learning process. It provides problems that are reality-based, and these are used in conjunction with the traditional learning approach. It, therefore, promotes the inquiry, learning that is self-directed, researching information, dialog, and solving problems collaboratively with the group members.
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PBL, therefore, enhances the learning process through the promotion of interaction. This promotion is by providing opportunities for collaboration during experiments and simulations (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). In addition, the interaction is promoted by verbal interactions in a PBL environment. Therefore, it improves problem-solving skills in-group work and at the individual level (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010).
Moreover, the learning process is also enhanced in PBL through the improvement of significant thinking skills. This development is achieved, for instance, through explanations provided by other students in the group to solve the problem one can think deeply to find solutions (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010). The innovative projects also increase the intellect of those students at the greatest risk of not learning and improve comprehension of concepts (Eskrootchi & Oskrochi, 2010).
Project-Based Learning is, therefore, among the most coherent approaches to teaching and learning in all levels of education including for individuals with psychological problems. It provides tremendous opportunities for large-scale evaluative studies requiring rigorous research and smaller in-depth qualitative studies for unpacking the vital components of the approach.