It is known that, historically, the most common reason for categorizing students according to race has been to create or eternalize racially segregated schools. Prevalent race segregation in educational establishments in the United States of America existed from the colonial period and up to the twentieth century. The state or local school district has to show a compelling interest in its use of facially discriminatory racial classification because every race qualifies as a suspect class. It is also necessary to demonstrate that its procedures are closely tailored if it were to use race as the basis to segregate schoolchildren, advantage one student or another, or to deny the equal educational opportunity.
Courts have usually supported the decisions related to grade placement, assignment to structural groups, and denial of promotion. Ability grouping presumably influences more efficient and efficacious teaching by permitting the teachers to focus their efforts on students with similar necessities. Grouping according to achievement or ability is admissible, although there have been various challenges regarding the use of standardized intelligence and achievement tests that help distinguish the placement of pupils in classes and special education programs.
The first colleges and public schools mostly served only males, that is why classifications and discriminatory treatment in the public education system based on gender are considered to be very old. Gender equality in public schools has improved over the years, however, simultaneously, the classifications based on sex have restricted both the academic and out-of-class activities. Insulted parties frequently turn to federal courts in order to defend their personal rights. Title IX prohibits educational recipients of federal financial assistance from discriminating, excluding, or denying benefits because of sex (McCarthy, Cambron-McCabe, Eckes, 2013).
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HFACS attempts to analyze human errors basing on the reason’s model at each level of failures identified under the concept of active and latent errors. According to Wiegmann & Shappell (2000), there are four levels of failure; those are: preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, unsafe acts, and organizational influence.
The unsafe act is the ultimate failure in a chain of shortfalls that starts with organizational influence. However, when investigating an accident, investigators always begin with analyzing an unsafe act committed by an operator. They then follow the four accident series of events through the four levels, after which indirect and direct influences of operator’s actions are established (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2000).
HFACS further modifies the reason’s model by establishing the susceptibility points at each stage in the system. For example, organizational influences are susceptible to errors connected with resource management which includes allocations of finances, equipment and facilities. The organizational climate that includes management policies, structures and procedures together with organizational processes, which comprise of operations, procedures and safety error that exist in the organization (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2000).
Under unsafe supervision, the susceptibility errors are caused by supervisors’ negligence; issuing clear guidance to the workforce, ensuring obedience of safety-related laws and regulations by personnel, can stil breed a dangerous working environment (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2001).
Precautions of unsafe acts are vulnerable to errors such as: the personal aspects which are caused by the operator and they include misappropriation of team resources and other aspects that affect personal readiness. Secondly, environmental aspects, which are a result of external forces surrounding, and influence an individual’s performance. Lastly, physiological, mental and physical conditions may arise due to fatigue and effects of over-the-counter medications. On the other hand, unsafe act includes actions contributed by an operator in breeding an error. The errors are categorized into: unintentional error, which can be either perceptual or skill-based errors, and willful violation which is normally a result of ignorance to rules and measures (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2000).
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The HFACS is an all-inclusive and user-friendly tool in identifying and classifying human errors leading to accidents. It has taken in to account the organization failures and the status of operators, and generally, all aspects of human error have been accounted for.