What is Strategy?

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The strategy is a term mostly used in management. It has different definitions according to the people who founded a specific form of strategy. Even though the strategy has different ways of description, the expected outcome of strategies is similar. Strategies help organizations, institutions or companies to come up with desired goals. Furthermore, it provides direction to the workers in an organization and serves as an improvement tool.

Even with the fact that strategy is very important in an organization, it also has weaknesses and strengths in the same organizations. In this study, we will consider various definitions of strategy according to different people and the weakness accompanied by these kinds of defined strategies.

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Strategy according to Liddell

Liddell is a man who worked in the Military and therefore he has made a definition of strategy basing it to this job environment. Actually, it does not mean that his definition is limited to the Military. The definition is less like a name and therefore, it does not mean it is limited to one place. It is unlimited and any field can apply it and serve a great purpose in the field. Therefore, Liddell defines strategy as, “the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy” (Liddell, (1967)). He made this definition of strategy from a Military point of view but we can consider it as a strategic term used in different fields. In the field of management or a different field, we can omit the word military and apply that definition to accomplish our goals.

Strengths of Liddell’s definition of strategy

Liddell’s definition of strategy is very useful especially to the members occupying leadership positions in the military. It provides the knowledge of strategy in the field of military and hence helps them to apply it and come up with desirable results. Liddell’s definition of strategy is helpful to people who understand management. To those people who understand management, they can interpret this definition from the management point of view, apply it to the day-to-day activities of management, and make a good outcome.

The weakness of Liddell’s definition of strategy

Liddell’s definition of strategy is not that open, it is closed or specific. His definition is specifically talking about the means or the tactics that the military can apply in order to come up with desirable results. It looks complex and does not bring a direct understanding of someone who has no management idea.

Strategy According to George Steiner

Steiner a professor of management has many definitions of strategy. Steiner came up with the many definitions of strategy because of his intense studies. He has written a lot in management, and since he has begun writing he has never come up with a specific way of defining strategy.

One of his definitions of strategies is that strategy is basically the directional decisions that are to purposes and missions (Steiner, (1979)). When looking at Steiner’s definition of strategy you will realize that he is only describing a similar thing. Steiner is looking at strategy as a question of what the organization is doing to achieve a certain goal. Besides this is like a question that answers what an organization needs to do in order to make its ends meet.

Strengths of Steiner’s definition of strategy

Steiner came up with different ways of defining strategy. In his definitions, people can easily understand what strategy is and how to apply it in management issues.

The weakness of Steiner’s definition of a strategy

Steiner has come up with many definitions of strategy but they are all the same. It sometimes confuses, it needs clarity before putting it to application in a required field. It was better for Steiner to make a short and precise definition of strategy in order to guard against confusion.

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Strategy According to Henry Mintzberg

Mintzberg has defined strategy in four different ways; he says that strategy is a plan or a means of getting from one place to another. He says the strategy is a pattern of actions over time. Mintzberg goes on to define strategy as a position that reflects decisions offering particular products or services to specific markets, lastly, he defines a strategy to as a perspective, which is direction and vision.

Strengths of Mintzberg’s definition of strategy

Mintzberg’s definitions are clear and help one to understand the way to apply in a specific field. He has outlined some uses of strategy in his definitions and this provides easy understanding. People working in high-level management positions in an organization can benefit from this kind of definition. For this reason, they can make their organizations productive through these definitions.

Strategy According to Kenneth Andrews

Kenneth says, “Corporate strategy is the pattern of decisions in a company that determines and reveals its objectives purposes, or goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving those goals. It defines the range of business the company is to pursue, the kind of economic and human organization it is or intends to be, and the nature of the economic and non-economic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers, and communities” (Andrews (1980)).

Strengths of Andrew’s strategy definition

Kenneth, strategy definition seems to be a combination of many aspects towards the attainment of organizational goals or objectives. It is important to any organizational setup and will yield this is a good strategic value.

The weakness of Andrew’s strategy definition

Andrew’s definition of strategy is complex because he has put together many ideas. This makes it difficult for someone to come up with a clear meaning of strategy and thus difficult to apply it in an organizational setup.

Strategy According to Michael Porter

According to Potter strategy is a position and plan, whereby one has to maintain a higher position and come up with a good plan to achieve the organizational goals.

Strengths of potter definition of strategy

Potter’s definition of strategy is short and precise. It brings easy understanding and thus easy to apply on organizational l set up.

The weakness of potter’s definition of a strategy

Potter defines strategy in one line, he defines a competitive strategy only, and this, therefore, helps one to understand only one type of strategy but not a strategy in general. Organization managers should have the knowledge of strategy as a whole so that he/she can come up with measures that can favor the organizations sues.

Strategy According to Kepner-Tregoe

According to Kepner strategy is “the framework which guides those choices that determine the nature and direction of an organization.”

Strengths of Kepner’s definition of strategy

Kepner’s definition of strategy is easy to understand and hence easy to apply in an organization. This will, therefore, lead to organizational success.

The weakness of Kepner’s definition of a strategy

Kepner’s definition of strategy is from a specific field of the institution. It links itself with a business organization and may not be easy to practice in a non-business organization. It can only be possible underemployed of a great idea.

Strategy According to Michel Robert

According to Robert, the strategy is the ability to think strategically

Strength of Roberts’s strategy

Robert’s definition is very important to the management of business organizations because of its caries business activities.

The weakness of Robert’s strategy

This form of organization strategy targets business organizations only. To other organizations, it cannot serve a direct meaning and hence we can say it is limited. This becomes a disadvantage to other organization’s members.

Strategy According to Treacy and Wiersema

Treacy and Wiersema have no specific definition of strategy, but they have come up with three value disciplines of defining it.

Strength of Treacy and Wiersema’s definition of strategy

It is a good strategy for all business organizations. It helps the business managers to make use of the three value disciplines to make their organizations productive.

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Strategy according to Nickols

According to Nickos, the strategy is perspective, position, plan, and pattern. He adds that strategy the end-result defines strategy. Actually, a strategy is verifiable through the results. After obtaining the anticipated results, we can say a strategy exists in an organization.

Strengths of Nickols strategy definition

Nickol’s definition of strategy is very important to business managers. Its significance to an organization leads to organizational performance.

The weakness of Nickol’s strategy definition

His definition seems to focus on the field of business. It will, therefore, benefit organizations under the field of business.

Generally, when looking at all strategy definitions, you will understand that they pull towards a certain goal. All definitions of strategy drive to the end-results, each of them has a different approach but it rotates about the achievement of the desired goal in an organization or institution.

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